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MAR 8 1974 
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T- 7 ; 

AM PRES BR1 .P58 V.3 
Biblical repertory. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
Princeton Theological Seminary Library 

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In beginning this exhorlation to you, 0 Greeks, I pray 
God that I may be enabled to address you as I ought; and 
that you, laying aside your wonted spirit of disputation, 
may at the same time abandon the errors of your fathers, 
and embrace at length more profitable doctines. And think 
not, that by thus rejecting the false belief of your ancestors, 
and adopting contrary opinions, you will be guilty of any 
irreverence to their memory ; since accurate research, by 
revealing more clearly the nature of things, often demon¬ 
strates the fallacy of doctrines, which presented before the 
exterior of truth. 

The question, which I design at present to consider, is 
this —What is the true religion ?—the most moment¬ 
ous question, as it appears to me, that can be proposed to 
beings who look forward in hope to a state of future felici¬ 
ty. Its importance arises from the fact, that after death 
there is a judgment—a doctrine not peculiar to our faith, 
but taught also by those whom you call wise, by your Poets, 
and, which is more important, by your masters of genu¬ 
ine and elevated philosophy. Such being the object 
of our inquiry, let us first ascertain, who were the ear¬ 
liest teachers of our religion and of yours ; what were 
their characters, and at what periods they lived. I would 
investigate these facts, in order that, by viewing the 
faith which you have inherited and profess, as it really 
is, you may be induced to abandon it; and that it may at 
the same time be clearly seen, that in belief and worship 
we are indeed the followers of holy men of old. 

To whom then do you appeal as the teachers of your 



religion ? To the poets ? A reference to their authority 
will meet with no flattering reception among those who 
are familiar with their writings, and know any thing of 
the ridiculous doctrine of Theogony or generation of the 
gods there taught. Let us gather a few of their theologi¬ 
cal principles from Homer, the first and greatest of them, 
all. By him we are taught that the race of the gods had 
its origin in water. 

’QxSclvqv fs 0s3v yevstfiv, xal /J-yrigci T^uvf 

The parent of the gods 
Oceanus, and Tethys his espoused, 

Mother of all.f 

As to Jupiter, the supreme Deity, whom he repeatedly 
calls the Father of gods and of men, we are told that he 
is the steward or dispenser of wars upon earth, 

Zsi 'jS o's r' dvtiguirwv <rap. V •TroXe'p.oio TsVuxrai, J 

* * * * Jove, 

Dispenser of the great events of war— 

and, as if not satisfied with thus making him a <rap.iV to 
mortal armies, he represents this same deity, as instigating, 
through the agency of his daughter, a breach of truce on 
the part of the Trojans § He is also exhibited to us in 
love, in affliction, and in danger from a conspiracy of the 
other immortals. On one aecasion, we find him thus be¬ 
wailing himself on account of his son Sarpedon, 

r Q [Xoi lyw, ore poi SugrfrjSova, <pi'X<ravov dv<5|wv, 

Moijs’ liro Ilar^oxXoio MsvoinuSao Japdjvai, jj 

Alas for my beloved son, my own 
Sarpedon ! whom the fates ordain to die, 

Slain by Patroclus !— 

* Iliad, xiv. 302. t Cowper. J Iliad, xix. 224. 

§ Iliad, iv. 60—100. jj Iliad, xvi. 433. 



on another, lamenting, in like manner, the condition of 

’Q, iiwof, % ipi'Xov avSga. <5iwxo 1 asvov nsgi tsT-^oS 
'Of^aX/xoIifiv oPWjiai, spwv S' 0X0pjgZTat rj-rog —* 

Ah, I behold a warrior dear to me 

Around the walls of Ilium driv’n, and grieve— 

The story of the famous Plot is simply this—that, 

fuv luv^tfai ’OXppraioi wDsXov aXXoi, 

"H|>] t’, r q8 s Ilotfsi^awv, xai riaXXig ’At)/jv7],t 

Once the gods, 

With Juno, Neptune, Pallas at their head, 

Conspired to bind the Thunderer, 

and, had not these blessed gods been afraid of one Bria 
reus, would have succeeded in the attempt. 

The extent of bis libidinous indulgences may be learned 
from his own address to Juno, 

Oj yag vsuirori pd qSe &sxg Egos, Z8s yvvcuxbg, 

&v[Jjbv ivi <jT 7 j&siiui irsgingoyyQe'.s iSxjxaiftfev, (x. <r. X. )$ 

For never goddess poured, nor woman yet 
So full a tide of love into my breast; 

I never loved Ixionsconsort thus 
Who bore Pirithous, wise as we in heaven; 

Nor sweet Acrisian Danae, from whom 
Sprang Perseus, noblest of the race of man; 

Nor Phoenix’ daughter fair, of whom were born 
Minos unmatched but by the powers above, 

And Rhadamanthus; nor yet Semele, 

Nor yet Alcmena, who in Thebes produced 
The valiant Hercules; and though my son 
By Semele were Bacchus, joy of man ; 

Nor Ceres, nor Latona, nor—thyself, 

As now I love thee. 

hiad, xxii. 168. 

t Iliad, i. 399. 

^ Iliad, xiv. 315. 



From Homer we may also learn something of the cha 
racter of the other gods, and the sufferings which they en¬ 
dured at the hands of men. Both Mars and Venus, he 
informs us, were wounded by diomede, and similar evils 
are also described as having been inflicted upon many other 
of the deities, as we may perceive from the consolatory 
speech of Dione to her daughter, 

TgrXotdj, <rhvo'J s.aov, xu! dvacr^so xrj5 o/xs'v-y] ve?, 

IIoXXoj y»? ^ <rXijjx £v *OXufX-/r»a Sup ar’ g^ovrsg (x. <r. X.)* 

My child, how hard soe’er thy sufferings seem, 

• Endure them patiently, since many a wrong 
From human hands profane the gods endure— 

% ifj Jfi ^ ^ 

Mars once endured much wrong, when on a time, 

Otus and Ephialtes bound him fast, 

Sons of Aloeus, and full thirteen moons 
In brazen thraldom held him. 


Nor Juno less endured, when erst the bold 
Son of Amphytrion with triden al shaft 
Her bosom pierced; she then the inis’ry felt 
Of irremediable pain severe. 

Nor suffered Pluto less, of all the gods 
Giganiic most, by the same son of Jove 
Alcides, at the portals of the dead 
Transfixed and filled with anguish, &c. 

The following description of a battle between the subor¬ 
dinate deities, is from the same poet. 

Todffog ctpa x-jtfog ugro 6su>v guvn'vrwv, (x. <r. X.)t 

With such a sound, 

The powers eternal into battle rushed— 

Opposed to Neptune, sovereign of the waves, 

* Iliad, v. 382. 

' t Iliad, xx. 66. 



Apollo stood with his winged arrows armed ; 

To Mars, Minerva; to Jove's awful spouse 
Diana of the golden how ; * * * * 

So gods encountered gods. 

Such are the doctrines which are taught with reference 
•to the Deity, not by Homer alone, hut by Hesiod also. 
If then, you choose to rely upon the authority of these cele¬ 
brated poets, who have given us the genealogy of the gods, 
you are reduced to the necessity of believing, either 
that the gods whom £ou worship arc such as we have just 
seen them described, or that they are no gods at all. 

But you will perhaps decline an appeal to the authority 
of the poets, on the ground of that license, which they 
are permitted to use, of embellishment and fabrication 
even respecting the Deity himself. If so, to whom will 
you refer me, as the teachers of your religion ? And, who¬ 
ever they are, by what means do you suppose them to have 
acquired the knowledge which you thus attribute to them ? 
For I hold it to be impossible, that any man whatever should 
have an intimate acquaintance with a subject so vast and 
elevated, without previous instruction. You will, no 
doubt, mention your sages and philosophers, for, I am 
well aware that you always fly to them as to a place of re¬ 
fuge, when the absurdities of your poets are exposed. Be¬ 
ginning, then, with the most ancient of these wise men } 
I shall lay before you the opinions of each, and show them 
to be far more ridiculous than the Theology of the poets 

Thales, of Miletus, who may be regarded as the father 
of Natural Philosophy, considered water as the principle 
of all things ; believing that from it they had at first pror 
ceeded, and into it would be finally dissolved. After him, 
Anaximander, also of Miletus, taught that (he principle of 
all things is infinity ; that from it they arose at first, and 



into it would be again annihilated. Anaximenes, a third 
Milesian, declared air to be the universal principle, in 
which all things had their origin and end. It was suppos¬ 
ed by Heraclitus, of Metaponfum, to be fire ; by Anaxa¬ 
goras, of Clazomene, similitude of parts; and by Arche- 
laus, the Athenian, an unlimited atmosphere , with its at¬ 
tributes of density and rarity. All these, in regular suc¬ 
cession from Thales, pursued the study of what they called 
Natural Philosophy. 

Turning to another school, we find Pythagoras, of Sa¬ 
mos, laying down as principles, number , and its propor¬ 
tions, the combinations of which it is susceptible, and the 
elements thus composed ; together with Unity and unde¬ 
fined Duality. Epicurus, of Athens says,that the elements 
of all things are certain substances, perceptible only to 
the mind, incapable of a vacuum, uncreated, indestructible, 
indivisible, admitting neither change of form nor combi¬ 
nation of parts. Empedocles of Agrigentum taught the exis¬ 
tence offour elements, Fire, dlir, Earth, and M ater ; and 
two active principles, dlffinity and Discord, the one 
having a conjunctive, the other a disjunctive power. 

From this view you ma}^ perceive the utter confusion of 
opinion among those whom you are accustomed to call wise. 
One declares the principle of all things to be water; ano¬ 
ther, fire; another, air; and another, something else. 
Each, too, uses all his powers of persuasion and eloquence, 
to establish the truth ofhis own false hypothesis, and to prove 
its superiority to every other. Now how can it be safe for 
those who desire salvation, to depend for religious instruc¬ 
tion upon men, who could not so far persuade themselves as 
to avoid a total difference and even contrariety of opinion ? 

It may, however, be objected by those who are unwilling 
to abandon ancient errors, that religious instruction is to be 
derived, not from the sages whom I have mentioned, but 
from those most illustrious and virtuous of all philoso- 



phers, Plato and Aristotle, who, they say, possessed a clear 
and perfect knowledge of the subject. I would gladly 
learn, in the first place, from whom that, knowledge wa3 
derived, it being imposMble, as I have already said, that, 
without instruction, they should understand the matter 
themselves, much more, that they should be able to leach 
it aright to others. In the next place, I shall examine the 
respective opinions of the philosophers cited, that we 
may see how far they are consistent; fora want of agree¬ 
ment, I conceive, will be a sufficient proof of the ignorance 
of both. 

Plato, with the manner of one who had descended from 
heaven, and was accurately acquainted with celestial things, 
asserts, that ihe essence of the Deity is fire. Arisode, 
in a compendious view of his philosophical opinions, con¬ 
tained in his discourse to Alexander of Macedon, openly 
and explicitly denies this assertion of Plato, saying, that 
the essence of God is not Fire, but a certain fifth substance, 
ethereal and immutable, which he creates for the occasion. 
His words are these: “The essence of God is not fire f 
as some foolish speculators on the divine nature have as¬ 
serted.” Then, as if not satisfied with this insulting reflec¬ 
tion upon his master, he brings forward as a witness, to 
prove the existence of his ethereal substance , Homer, 
whom Plato had excluded from his republic as a liar, and, 
as he expressed it, an imitator of imaginary things. 

The verse cited by Aristotle for the purpose is this : 

ZsCg d’tXa^’ igavov sCgvv ev aifiegi xai ve<p£\r,ff i. * 

The heavens. 

The clouds, and boundless tether, fell to Jove. 

He seems not to have been aware, however, that if the 
poet could thus be cited as a witness in his favour, his tes- 

* Iliad, xv. 193. 
u 2 



timony might with equal propriety be employed to prove 
many of his doctrines false. For example, Thales, of Mi¬ 
letus, the first Natural Philosopher, might upon the same 
principle disprove Aristotle’s notion respecting first ele¬ 
ments. The latter regarded God and matter as the princi¬ 
ples of all things ; but Thales had, long before, assigned 
the same place to water , believing that from that substance 
all things had been originally generated, and into it would 
ultimately be dissolved. He founded this hypothesis on the 
fact, that the presence of water is essential to the genera¬ 
tion and subsistence both of animals and plants. 

But, as if not satisfied with these grounds of conjecture, 
he adduces the testimony of Homer: 

’flxsavog, ogirsg ysverfis iravrstffl'i <rsVuxrai. * 

Ocean, Sire of all. 

Now, might not Thales very justly say to Aristotle : How 
is it, that when attempting to disprove some doctrine of 
Plato, you consider Homer as a competent witness, but 
when desirous of refuting my opinions, will not admit his 
testimony ? 

But that this is not the only point on which these admi¬ 
red philosophers are at variance, we may learn from the 
following facts. Plato asserts that the principles of all things, 
are three: God, Matter, and Form ; God , being the 
creator; matter , the subject and the occasion of creation ; 
and form, the model upon which every thing is made. 
Aristotle makes no mention of form , as a principle, but 
enumerates only two, God and matter. 

Again, Plato asserts that the supreme Deity and the 
forms above-mentioned reside in the immoveable sphere 
of the highest heaven. Aristotle places next to the su¬ 
preme Deity, not these forms but certain 6soi vorjroi, or 
gods comprehensible by the understanding. 

* Iliad, xiv. 246. 



Such is their discrepancy of opinion respecting celestial 
affairs. And, indeed, how can those who know so little 
of things on earth as to differ wholly respecting them, be 
worthy of our confidence when they tell us of things in 
heaven ? That these philosophers so differed, is evident 
from their conflicting accounts of the human soul. Plato 
informs us that the soul consists of three distinct parts, rea¬ 
son , passion, and appetite. Aristotle asserts, that it is 
not so much extended as to embrace in it corruptible par¬ 
ticles, but consists of reason alone. Plato vehemently de¬ 
clares, that every soul is immortal. Aristotle affirms it to 
be endowed with a natural tendency toperfection, but re¬ 
gards it as perishable. The one says that it is perpetually 
in motion; the other, that it is immoveable, being prior to 
all motion. 

Thus far we have seen them at variance with each other. 
A little attention will show, that] the writings of neither 
are consistent with themselves. Plato, at first, enume¬ 
rates three universal principles : God, Matter, and Form ; 
but afterwards makes them four, by the addition of what 
he calls a universal soul. He first declares matter to 
be uncreated, and afterward, to be created. He first 
asserts Form to be independent in its origin and exist¬ 
ence ; and afterwards, that it exists only in the concep¬ 
tions of the mind. He first affirms, that whatever had 
a beginning may have an end ; and afterwards, that 
some created things may possibly be indissoluble and in¬ 
corruptible. Now to what cause can we ascribe the fact, 
that these men whom you regard as sages, differ so widely, 
not only from one another, 1 but even from themselves ? To 
nothing but their unwillingness to learn from those who 
really knew, and from their imagining that by the power of 
human intellect they could acquire a knowledge of celes¬ 
tial things—even when they knew nothing aright of things 
upon earth. 



Some of your philosophers teach, that the soul is in the 
body ; others, that it is about it. For they are so far from 
being in unison upon this point, that they seem to have di¬ 
vided their ignorance into shares, and !o have deliberately 
resolved on disagreement and dispute respecting the nature 
of the soul. By one we are told, that it is fire ; by ano¬ 
ther, air; by another, thought; by another, motion; 
by another, exhalation; by another, an influence pro¬ 
ceeding from the stars; by another, number, endued 
with the power of motion; and by another, the genera/ivc 
fluid. Such is the dissonance and confusion of opinion 
which prevails among them, none of them deserving any 
applause, unlessit be for the successful efforts of each to 
convict the rest of ignorance and falsehood. 

Since then, there is no genuine knowledge of religion to 
be derived from the writings of your teachers, their disa¬ 
greement furnishing a demonstration of their ignorance, 
let us now turn to our progenitors—to men, who in point 
of time, were far before the Greek philosophers ; who 
taught nothing from the suggestion of their own imagina¬ 
tions ; who neither disagreed nor endeavoured to refute 
each other’s doctrines; but in perfect consistence with 
themselves and harmony with one another, derived their 
information immediately from God and imparted it to us. 
For, a knowledge of things so elevated and divine must 
be revealed to us, not by the efforts of unassisted human 
reason, but by a supernatural gift descending from heaven 
upon holy men. To such men, there can be no need of 
rhetorical art, or of a talent, for argumentative and contro¬ 
versial address. They have only to yield themselves free 
from impurity to the energies of the spirit of God, that 
the divine impulse, of which I have spoken may act upon 
them as upon the strings of a lyre or harp, and through 
them instruct us in divine and heavenly things. It is thus, 
that we have been taught as with one mouth and a single 



tongue, though by men who lived in limes and places 
widely different, respecting the creation of the world, the 
origin of our race, the immortality of the soul,and the 
judgment after death; in short, respecting every thing, 
the knowledge of which is essential to our happiness. 

I shall begin with Moses our first lawgiver and prophet, 
and demonstrate his antiquity from evidence, which even 
you cannot call in question. For, I shall not rely wholly 
upon our own sacred histories, which your attachment to 
the error of your fathers will prevent your believing, but 
upon records of your own, entirely unconnected with our 
religion. From their testimony you will be convinced, 
that all your sages, poets, historians, philosophers, and 
lawgivers, were long posterior to the first teacher 
of our faith. By them Moses is mentioned as having been 
a lawgiver in the days of Ogyges and Inachus, who are 
supposed by some of you to have sprung from the ground. 
This statement is made by Polemon, in the first, book of his 
History of Greece ; and Appion, in his work upon the 
Jews, and again in the fourth book of his History, relates 
that during the reign of Inachus, at Argos, the Jews, un¬ 
der the commano of Moses, rebelled against Amasis, king 
of Egypt : which statement is confirmed in all points by 
Piolemy Mendesius, in his history of that country. 

Moses is also mentioned, as an ancient and primeval 
leader of the Jews, by the Athenian historians, Hellanicus, 
Philochorus, Castor, Thallus, and Alexander Polyhistor ; 
as well as by those able Jewish annalists, Josephus and Phi¬ 
lo ; the former of whom entitles his work, “Th e Jlnti- 
quities of the Jews,” intending to express by that name 
the ancient date of the events which itrecords. 

Diodorus, also, your most eminent historian, who wrote 
his forty books, as he informs us, after having abridg¬ 
ed whole lioraries, traversed Europe and Asia for thirty 
years, and surveyed in person, many of the things 



which he describes—states it as a fact which he had learned 
from the Egyptian Priests, that Moses was the most an¬ 
cient of all lawgivers. The following are his words : 
‘‘After the state of things which is fabled to have existed 
in Egypt under the gods and heroes, the first who persua¬ 
ded the multitude to submit to written laws was Moses, a 
man still remembered on account of his greatness of spirit 
and excellence of life.” And again, a little afterwards, 
when enumerating the most ancient lawgivers, he begins 
with Moses, saying that “ he was called a god by the Jews, 
either on account of the benefits which it was supposed the 
people would derive from his wonderful and even god-like 
genius, or because it was believed, that a reverence for the 
dignity and power of the lawgiver would induce the mul¬ 
titude to respect the laws themselves. The second Egyp¬ 
tian legislator, it is said, was Sauchnis, a man of eminent 
wisdom. The third was Sesonchosis, who is celebrated, 
not only for having performed more signal military ex¬ 
ploits than any other Egyptian, but for the greater achiev- 
ment of subjecting a warlike people to the government of 
laws. The fourth recorded is Bochoris, who w r as remark¬ 
able both for wisdom and ingenuity. The next, who is 
said to have given his attention to the subject of govern¬ 
ment, is Amasis, who created the office of Nomarch and 
established the whole municipal system of Egypt. The 
sixth, who is recorded as a lawgiver to the Egyptians is 
Darius, the father of Xerxes.” 

Such is the testimony of men wholly unconnected with 
our religion, respecting the antiquity of Moses ; the facts 
having been derived as they themselves inform us, from the 
priests of Egypt, where Moses was not only born, but edu¬ 
cated in all the learning of the country, being thought 
worthy of that distinction on account of his adoption as 
the son of the king’s daughter. The Jewish historians, 
Philo and Josephus, in treating of his actions and the dig- 



nity of his birth, inform us, that he was of Chaldean ex¬ 
traction, his forefathers having been compelled by a famine 
to emigrate from Phoenicia into Egypt. There he was 
born ; and an account of his eminent virtues thought worthy 
by God of being appointed the commander and lawgiver of 
his peculiar people, when he should think'proper to con¬ 
duct them from Egypt into their own country. To 
him the divine gift of prophecy was first imparted ; and 
he was designated by God to be the first teacher of the true 
religion. In this office he was succeeded by the other 
prophets, who received the same gifts and gave the same 
instructions. These are the men whom we acknowledge 
as the teachers of our religion; teaching, not of human 
wisdom, but by the immediate gift of God. But as for you, 
since your attachment to hereditary error forbids your de¬ 
pending upon these, to whom will you turn as the teachers 
of your faith? From what has been said, it is sufficiently 
clear that the writings of yourphilosophers contain nothing 
but ignorance and deception. You will, therefore, I sup¬ 
pose, relinquish them, as you before relinquished the poets, 
and betake yourselves to the delusion of oracles. I have 
indeed heard as much from some of you. Let me then, 
remind you of some facts which I have learned from your¬ 
selves upon this point. 

An oracle,* being questioned by an individual—it is 
your own tradition—what men had ever been truly pious, 
returned this answer, 

Mouvoi XaXSuwi (fo<plrjv Xoc^ov, rjS' ag E/3guioi, 

AuroysvTiTov avaxra ffs/Sa^ojxsvoi ©Suv ayvwg' 

“Wisdom has been attained only by the Chaldees and Hebrews, 

Who worship in purity God the self-existent King.” 

* The Clarian Oracle, which commen ed its responses a century before 
the Trojan War, 



Now, believing as you profess to do, that a knowledge of 
the truth mav he derived from oracles; and knowing from 
the testimony of historians who did not believe in our re¬ 
ligion, that Moses (as well as the other prophets) was both 
a Chaldee, and a Hebrew by descent—you cannot think it 
strange, that, being sprung from a race emphatically pious, 
and living worthily of his hereditary belief, he was fa¬ 
voured bv God with this extraordinary gift, and selected to 
be the fir-d of all the prophets. 

I think it necessary, also, to inquire, in this place, at 
what time your philosophers lived, that you may be sensi¬ 
ble of their modern date, and perceive at once the compara¬ 
tive antiquity of Moses. As I would not, however, in 
treating of those times, be guilty of waiting my own by 
adducing a superfluity of evidence, I shall content myself, 
with the few facts which follow. Socrates was the teach¬ 
er of Plato, and Plato of Aristotle. These flourished in 
the age of Philip and Alexander of Macedon, and were con¬ 
temporary with the Athenian Orators, as we learn from the 
Philippics of Demosthenes and that Aristotle resided with 
Alexander after his accession to the throne, is asserted by 
all the historians of his reign. It is evident, then, on all 
sides, that the most ancient of all histories are the books 
of Moses. Nor ought the fact to be overlooked, that, before 
the first Olympiad, there was no Grecian history in exist¬ 
ence, and, indeed, no ancient writing whatever giving an ac¬ 
count of either the Greeks or Barbarians. The only histo¬ 
ry extant, was that which Moses wrote by divine inspira¬ 
tion, in Hebrew characters. For those of the Greeks were 
not yet invented ; your own grammarians informing us, 
that Cadmus first brought them from Phoenicia and intro¬ 
duced them into Greece. Plato, indeed, your greatest 
philosopher, asserts, that their invention was still more re¬ 
cent. He states in his Timaeus, that Solon, the wisest of 
the wise men, on his return from Egypt, repeated to Cri- 



tias the following words as having been spoken to him by 
an Egyptian Priest, and that not a very old man—“0 
Solon, Solon, you Greeks are always children. A Greek 
never grows old;”—and again, “ You are all children in 
understanding ; for you are possessed of no ancient tradi¬ 
tional knowledge, nor any learning that is hoary with age. 
Of this you are destitute, because all the generations be¬ 
fore you have perished without the knowledge of letters.” 
It is evident then, that all the Grecian histories were writ¬ 
ten in a character of modern invention; and if any one will 
refer to the ancient lawgivers, poets, and philosophers, he 
will find them all to have employed the same. It may 
however be objected by some, that perhaps Moses and the 
other prophets made use of these characters also. Let 
such consider the following facts, as they are proved by the 
testimony of profane historians. 

Ptolemy, king of Egypt, having founded a library in 
Alexandria, and collected books for it from every quarter, 
was informed, that there were certain ancient histories 
which had been carefully preserved in the Hebrew lan¬ 
guage. Being curious to know the subject of these books, 
he sent for seventy learned men from Jerusalem, well ac¬ 
quainted with both the Greek and Hebrew tongues, and 
employed them in translating them. In order that they 
might be able, by freedom from interruption, to perform 
their task more speedily, he caused to be erected, about 
seven stadia from the city, at the place where the Pharos 
was built, as many small houses or cells as there were trans¬ 
lators, so that each might labour by himself. The persons, 
who were appointed to attend them, were commanded to 
supply all their wants ; but at the same time to prohibit all 
intercourse, that the accuracy of the versions might be 
known from the degree of coincidence between them. 
When, therefore, he learned, that the seventy men had not 
only agreed entirely in sense, but had used precisely the 

x 2 



same language, not differing in so much as a word, he was 
struck with astonishment, and believed the translation to be 
effected by the power of God. Thinking'its authors 
worthy of all honour as men enjoying the favour of the 
Deity, he loaded them with gifts and dismissed them to 
their own country, while the books were consecrated and 
carefully preserved. You are not to regard this statement 
as a fiction. I myself, when in Alexandria, saw the re¬ 
mains of the seventy cells in the Pharos, and learned from 
the inhabitants, who had received it from their fathers, all 
that I have now related. The same facts are recorded by 
those able and respectable historians, Philo and Josephus, 
as well as by many others. 

It may however be objected by some disputatious spirit, 
that these books belong, not to us, but to the Jews, since 
they have been preserved in their synagogues ; and that 
we cannot justly lay claim to them as the oracles of our 
religion. Let such learn, from the contents of the books 
themselves, that the doctrine which they teach, is the doc¬ 
trine of the Christians, and not of the Jews. And as to 
the fact, that the books of our religion have been preserved 
among the Jews, it is to be regarded as a dispensation of 
Providence in our favour. Had they been at first brought 
forth from our churches, a plausible pretext would have 
been furnished to our enemies for accusing us of fraud. 
But now, proceeding as they do, from the Jewish syna¬ 
gogues, where they have from the first been preserved, the 
application of what is there written by inspired men to us 
and our doctrines, is more palpable and striking. 

Looking forward, now, into futurity, and contemplating 
the certainty of a final judgment, which has been taught 
both by our holy men, and by profane philosophers, you 
ought not surely without investigation to adhere to the er¬ 
ror of your fathers, and to receive all that they have igno¬ 
rantly handed down to you, as truth. On the contrary, 



considering the danger of your being finally disappointed 
in your hopes, you should diligently examine what may 
be learned even from those whom you acknowledge as 
teachers, who have been compelled against their will, by a 
providential influence, to bear testimony upon many points 
in our favour. This is especially true of those who visit¬ 
ed Egypt, and experienced the benefits to be derived from 
the religion of Moses and his ancestors. For it can scarce¬ 
ly have escaped such of you as have read the histories of 
Diodorus and others, that Orpheus, and Homer, and Solon 
the Athenian lawgiver, and Pythagoras, and Plato, and 
several others who visited Egypt and derived instruction 
from the books of Moses, afterwards retracted their former 
false opinions respecting the gods. As to Orpheus, who 
may be called the first teacher of polytheism among you, 
it may be proper to add what he afterwards addressed to 
Musaeus and his other children : 

ogai oig (k'pus idri, 6ugag d'itfidstjfls (3s/3r\Xoi 
IlavTggogwg* tfu d'axove cpasdcpogou sxyovs fA^VTjg, 

MouffaFgfs^sw ydg dXr\6sa • fjw)<5g tfe <rd irglv 
? Ev (jTYj&sdtfi cpavhra (piXvjs aluvog upijgdrj. 

Elg rs Xoyov 6s7ov (3Xi-^ag rkra vporfsd psus 
Iddvwv xgaSlys vos^ov xurog' sur' hr'ificuvs 
Argcttfirov, gouvov S’i&opu xodgoio avttxra. 

Eirf s<fr' dvroysvrjs, §vog sxyova tfavra <rervx<rai, 

Ev <5’ dvroTg aurog rtsp',y\yusrm • s<5s ngaurov 
Eltfogda fayr wv, aurog Ss ys eravrag oparai 
Ourog <$’ g| ayaSoTo xaxov tivrjroHfi SlSurfi 
Kai itoXsjxov xpudsvra, xai dXysa Saxg uosvra. 

Ouds Tig stfS’ srsgoS X u S‘ e /3atf(>.^og. 

Aurov <5’ oi3^b|ocd* rtsgi ydg vscpog itfrtywrat. 

Ildfftv yap hriroig 6vr t rui xogai Sirfiv sv otftfpjg, 

Ad&sussg <$’ ISssiv A('a rov eravrwv gs<5g'ovra. 

Ourog yag -/dXxsiou ss ougavov sdrygixrat 



Xgudicj slvi 6g6vu, yairjg S’M ifoddl [3i[3y]xs, 

Xs Tgci. <rs degtregriv ini rggixarog uxsuvoTo 
Uavrodev ixrsraxev irsgi yag 7gs[isi oiigsa [xaxga, 

Kai Kora^oi, tfoXnjs ts {3aAos -^agoKm 5aXatf(X?jS. 

“ I will speak to those to whom it is allowed. Let the uninitiated 
be excluded: Listen thou, Musseus, child of the shining moon, 
while I utter the truths nor let that which has before been infused in¬ 
to thy breast, deprive thee of thy precious life. Behold the divine 
Word, and give thyself wholly to it, ordering aright the intelligent 
receptacle of thy heart. Come up hither, and contemplate the sole 
King of the universe. He is one. He is self-existent. He alone 
created all things, and all things are pervaded by him. To mortals 
he is invisible, though he himself sees all things. Though good him¬ 
self, he gives evils to his creatures, bloody wars, and lamentable 
sorrows, and besides him there is no supreme king. I cannot behold 
him; for clouds are round about him, and the mortal pupils of mor¬ 
tal eyes are unable to look upon the ruler of the universe. He is 
established above the brazen heavens. He sits upon a golden 
throne and treads with his feet upon the earth, and stretches out his 
right hand to all the ends of the ocean. Then the lofty mountains 
tremble, the rivers, and the depths of the hoary sea.” 

and again, in another place he says— 

Ei'g Zzug, Si's AlSrjg, sis "HXioS, sis Ai ovudog, 

Els &sdg tfuvrsddr ri doi Siy^a rtxvr’dyogtvu j 

“ Jupiter is one, Pluto one, Sol one, Bacchus one, one God in all. 
Why do 1 tell you this again?” 



Ou^mvov ogxigu ds &soo (XsyaXou dotpou egy ov, 

Audf,v ogxi^u ds <jra<r£oS, <r^v cpSysy^aro <xgu><rov f 
"Hvixa xorfp-ov affavTa 'sal's drqgigaro jSovXaij. 

“ I swear by thee, O heaven, the work of the wise and mighty 
God ! I swear by thee, word of the Father, which he uttered at 
first, when he established the Universe in his counsels.” 



Now what is his meaning in the expression 

Av§'!}v ogxi'^w, &C. ? 

He no doubt uses the word auSrj to express the Aoyog or 
Word of God by whose agency, as we learn from our 
own sacred prophecies, the creation was accomplished. 
Those prophecies he also perused when in Egypt, and 
learning from them this truth, that the universe was created 
by the Word of God, he says, 

Au<5'^v ogxi tfs 7ra-T|o£, rrjv cp6iy^aro tfpur ov, 

and immediately adds, 

"Hvixa xorffAov utfavra iaTg dr^^aro (3x7\a~g. 

That he uses au^ instead of Xo'yos merely on account of the 
measure of his verse, is evident from the fact, that a little 
before, where the metre permits, he uses the proper term, 

Eig <5s Xoyov dsiov /3Xs'4*as •rkrtfirfgodsSgsvs. 

It will here be proper to inquire, what was taught re¬ 
specting the one only God, by the ancient Sibyl, who is 
mentioned as a prophetess by Plato, Aristophanes, and 
many others. 

Eis Si Qs os fJ-ovos Jtfciv utisgiieyidris, dyi\nr\ros f 
TLuvroxgurug, do^aros, o^w/xsvoS durog affavra, 

Auto’s S’k /3XsVsrai dvrjTvjs u^o da nog a itddr\g. 

“ There is one, only God, supreme and self-existent; almighty, 
invisible, himself beholding all things, but not perceptible to mor¬ 
tal flesh.” 

and again, 

•Hftfig 6’d(3avaToio rgifixs rfSffXav^pivoi i^asv 
”E gya Si -)(Si[>ortotr\ra. yegaigo^sv ucpgovi 
Ei<5wXa |oavwv ts xccTai}}$i|asvwv <r , dv6gutuv. 



“ We have wandered from the path of immortality, and madly 
worshipped the graven images of mortal men.” 

and again, 

’'OX/3ioi avAgurt 01 xeim yaTuv ecfovrou, 

'Otfrfoi 8ri [Msyav Ge'ov SuXoysovreg, 

Tltfv myesiv rtiieme <ifeifoi66rsg gutfs/Sbjc'iv. 

Oi’ v^oug fxsv drtavrag artagvijrfovrai ISovreg, 

Ka/ /3wjuous, slxdia Xifitiv d(piSgu[xara xuptiv, 

Ai'fAarfiv pspiarfpsva xai Svcflaitfi 

Ts-rPurfoSuv, /SXs-^outfi o’evbg ©sou g£ jxsya xudog. 

“ Happy shall those men be upon the earth, who shall delight ia 
praising God, and performing the duties of religion, more than in 
eating and drinking; who shall look down with contempt upon tem¬ 
ples and altars, and the worthless shrines of senseless deities, stained 
with the bloody sacrifice of living things—and shall have regard only 
to the supreme glory of the One God.” 

So far the Sibyl. Homer, abusing his license as a poet, 
and copying the early errors of Orpheus respecting poly¬ 
theism, sings of a plurality of gods—and this merely in 
imitation of the older poet, his admiration for whom may 
be learned from the first verse of the Iliad. Orpheus be¬ 
gins his poem in these words, 

Mtjviv deiSe Qed A^pvjrt^og dy’ha.oxagrfov — 

Homer in these, 

Mvjviv aside Ged Ur^iddeu A^iX^og. 

In this case, the latter seems to have preferred a gross vio¬ 
lation of the rules of metre* in the very beginning of his 
poem, to the imputation of having first introduced the gods 
by name. He afterwards, however, very clearly reveals 
his own opinion respecting the existence of one only God j 
as where he introduces Phoenix saying to Achilles, 

* Didymus observed and recorded three errors in prosody in the 
first verse of the Iliad; and the circumstance is also mentioned by 
Plutarch. (Tr.) 



—Ou<5’ el xev fxoi virorfrairi ©EOS AXT02, 
ffjgas dnol'{)(fas ) 6''i<fsiv vs'ov y[3uo vra.* 

No, not if Jove himself] 

> • 

Would promise, reaping smooth this silver beard, 

To make me downy-cheeked as in my youth,— 

where, by the use of the pronoun au<rog, he seems to design 
a reference to the really existing God. And again, where 
he represents Ulysses saying to the Grecian multitude, 

Oux dyaQov TToXuxoiPaviV eig xoigavoS foVw.t 

Plurality of Kings 
Were evil. One suffices. 

In which passage his design is to show the evil of such 
a plurality from the wars, dissensions and mutual conspira-' 
cies,which it must necessarily occasion, and the tranquillity 
which, on the other hand, characterizes a monarchy. 

Such are the doctrines of the poet Homer. If the tes¬ 
timony of the drama is also required, let us listen to the 
words of Sophocles : 

Eis ruTg dXqdsi'anftv, els Jtfnv QeoS , . 

"Os Zgavov tstsu^s, xai yatav pax^av, 

Ilovrou <rs y;a£o?rov o/<5/xoc xavg/xwv (3lag. 

©vtjtoi Ss <7roXXof xctgSlo rrAavwjxsvoi, 

'Ufutfapsrf^a 9fy)(iarwv ira^a -^uy^v, 

©ewv dyaXfia<r’ £x Aidwv <re xai filAwv, 

*H xgvcforeuxruv y iAs<pav<n'vwv tuttous 
©utf/ag re TouToig xai xaAds 
Ts^ovtss, k'rwg evdefisTv vo/xi^ofiev 

“JThereis in truth but one, one only God, 

Who built the skies and framed the mighty globe. 

Spread ocean’s wide expanse, and formed the winds ; 

But superstitious man, in madness rears, 

Of wood, or stone, or ivory, or gold, 

Emblems of other gods; upon their shrines 
Offers his prayers and gifts—and calls it worship.” 

* Iliad ix. 445. 

f Iliad ii. 204. 



Pythagoras, who taught the principles of his philosophy 
by means of mystic symbols, seems also to have imbibed 
correct ideas of the Deity, when in Egypt. For by saying 
that the principle of all things is f;.6vas or unity, and des¬ 
cribing it as the cause of every thing good, he appears to 
teach allegorically the truth that God is One and Alone. 
This would seem to be his meaning from his afterwards as¬ 
serting that there is a wide difference between fio'vag and 
"Ev, the former, as he says, pertaining to things compre¬ 
hensible by the understanding, the latter simply to num¬ 
bers. If you wish to know more clearly the doctrine of 
this philosopher, respecting the Deity, you may gather it 
from his own words. 

“ God is One. He is not, as some suppose, without the 
limits of creation, but, being complete in himself, is pre¬ 
sent throughout the circle of the universe, surveying all 
his works. He unites in himself all periods of time, and 
is the author of all his own powers and actions. He is the 
universal principle. He is unity. He is the light of 
heaven, the father of all things, the mind and soul of the 
universe, the moving power of all spheres.”* 

It is probable that Plato also became acquainted,while in 
Egypt, with the doctrine of Moses and the other prophets, 
respecting the unity of God. The fate of Socrates, how¬ 
ever, gave him reason to dread^that some Anytus or Melilus 
might arise and accuse him to the people, as a curious 
speculator who denied the gods acknowledged by the state. 
Through fear of the hemlock, therefore, he deals out his 
doctrine on this subject in a disguised and fantastic form, 

* 'O fjjiv 0£og s/g* aurog <5s, ou^, ws Tivsg utfovoStfiv, ixrog rag Siaxoa- 
fjwjtfiog, aXX’ sv iauTw oXog §v oXw <ru xvx\u sVfffxoircjv Tatfag Tag ys- 
vsViag JtfTi, xgutft g iuiv toiv oXwv aiwvwv xai igydras twv aur2 Svvapiuv 
xal sgyuv, d^aVavTwv, sv, iv oupavw cpuarrjg, xai tfavTWV waryjg, voCg 
xui -j-u^urfig twv oXwv, xJxXwv a-iravTwv xivatfig. 



saying that there arc gods to those who believe there are 
gods, and none to those who think there are none. He 
at first states, that whatever is created is mortal; but after¬ 
wards asserts, that the gods are created. Now since he con¬ 
sidered God and matter as the principles of all things, he 
must, of course, have believed the gods to be material. 
But what may be the character of deities, proceeding from 
matter, which he regarded as also the source of evil, he 
leaves to the determination of the wise. His object in 
representing matter as uncreated seems to have been this, 
that he might avoid making God the author of evil. Re¬ 
specting the inferior gods created by the supreme Deity, 
he speaks thus in the person of the latter— “©so/ ©swv— 
the gods of gods, whose creator I am.’ 5 It is evident, how¬ 
ever, that he had a correct notion of the true God. He had 
learned in Egypt that when God was about to send Moses 
to the Hebrews, he said to him ’Eyw e/fju 6 uv. Now he justly 
concluded that God did not reveal this as an ordinary pro¬ 
per name; for it is impossible that any such name should 
be applied to the Deity. Names are used for the purpose 
of indicating and distinguishing the many and various ob¬ 
jects to which they are applied. Now there was no pre¬ 
existent being by whom such a title could be imposed upon 
God, and he saw no reason to assume one himself, because 
being one and alone it could not be necessary for the pur¬ 
pose of distinction. This doctrine of his unity he teaches 
us himself by the mouth of his prophet. “ I am the first , 
and I am the last; and beside me there is no God 
As I said before, therefore, he did not reveal, when about 
to send Moses to the Hebrews, any personal name or title 
belongingto himself, but by mqans of the participle employ¬ 
ed, mystically taught that he was the one only God, ’Eyw 
e)[uo Cm, thus placing himself as the existing God, in oppo¬ 
sition to those who had no existence, that he might teach 
those who had been deluded into idolatry that the objects 

* Isaiah xliv. C. 

2 V 



of their worship had been not real but imaginary gods. 
God well knew that mankind would preserve the recollec¬ 
tion of the deceit practised upon their progenitors by the 
enemy of their race, when he said, “If you will obey me, 
and transgress the commandments of God, ye shall be as 
gods.” This the fiend said, for the purpose of leading 
men to believe, that there were other gods besides the su¬ 
preme Deity, and that they themselves might possibly be¬ 
come such. It was on this account, that the Lord announced 
himself to Moses as 'O uv, that the very terms employed 
might express the difference between the God who really 

is, and the false gods who have no existence. Now when 
man had yielded to the persuasions of the demon and vio¬ 
lated the precepts of his Maker, and in consequence 
had been expelled from Paradise, he carried with him the 
recollection of those gods of whom he had heard, not 
having yet been taught the impossibility of a plurality of 
gods. For it was not just, that they who had broken the 
first command imposed upon them and one so easily ob¬ 
served, should in return receive an increase of knowledge ; 
but rather, that they should suffer condign punishment. 
When therefore they were expelled from Paradise, they 
imagined that they were punished merely for the violation 
of the precept, and not also for believing in the existence 
of gods who had really no being. Under this delusion, 
they transmitted to their children the names of these un¬ 
real deities. This false imagination, therefore, respect¬ 
ing a plurality of gods had its origin with the father of 
lies. Now God knowing that this absurd belief adhered 
like a disease to the soul of man, and wishing to eradicate 

it, when he first appeared to Moses, said, ’Eyw ii/u o uv. And 
it seems to me to have been highly proper that he, who 
was to be the leader and lawgiver of the Hebrews, should 
be the first to know God as the truly existing Deity. To 
him, therefore,revealing himself, so far as it was possible to 



mortal sight, he said, ’Eyw sijxi o uv; and on giving him his 
commission to the Hebrews, he commands him to say, 
t( 'O ”fi:N sent me unto you.” 

Now all this Plato had learned in Egypt, and was no 
doubt captivated with the doctrine of the unity of God. 
But from a dread of the Areopagus, he did not think it safe 
to mention Moses, as the teacher of the doctrine, among the 
Athenians. The doctrine itself, however, he well explains 
in his elaborate work Timxus (which is the first of his the¬ 
ological writings), not as derived from any other source, 
but as a conception of his own. He uses indeed the very 
same expression as Moses: a For I think,” says he, “ that 
we ought first to inquire what that is which always exists 
(to ov as!), but was never created, and also what that is, 
which is created, but never exists.” Now are not these 
expressions precisely the same, excepting in the gender of 
the article ? Moses says 'O &v — Plato, to ov. Both are 
evidently applied to the eternal God. For there is none 
but he that always exists and is yet uncreated. And if we 
inquire what it is which is put by Plato in opposition to 
that which always exists, as being created yet non-existent, 
we shall find him plainly asserting that this uncreated be¬ 
ing is eternal, while the created gods whom he had men¬ 
tioned before are finite and perishable. “ The former,” 
says he, “ may be conceived by the understanding as con¬ 
sistent with reason, the latter are conceivable only by the 
imagination with a perception of their absurdity, as things 
which had a beginning and were created, yet have never 
existed.” By these words the philosopher must certainly 
be considered as annihilating or denying the existence of 
these created deities. It is necessary also to remark this 
circumstance, that Plato speaks of the supreme Deity not 
as the tfoirjTTjs but the of these gods. Now there 

is a considerable difference between the import of these 
terms. The former signifies one, who, without depend- 



anco upon any other being, of his own power and authori¬ 
ty, makes what he does make—the latter, one who derives' 
his power of creation from the matter upon which he acts.* 

Some, however, who still adhere to the principles of 
polytheism, will cite, in opposition to what has been said, 
the following address of Plato’s ®sog Arj^usgyos to the gods 
created by him. u Since you are creatures, you are not 
absolutely immortal or imperishable. But you shall not 
die nor be annihilated, being secure from both by a stron¬ 
ger bond, [than the necessity of your nature]—my will.” 
Here, it must be confessed that Plato’s dread of his coun¬ 
trymen has led him to subject his supreme God to the 
charge of inconsistency. He had before introduced him 
as asserting, that whatever had a beginning may have an 
end; and now he makes him assert the contrary, not seem¬ 
ing to be aware, that by so doing he would infallibly ex¬ 
pose himself to the charge of falsehood. Either his first or 
his last statement must be untrue. For if that which is 
created, is from the necessity of its nature perishable, ac¬ 
cording to his first position; how can that which is of ne¬ 
cessity impossible in any way become possible, as he after¬ 
wards asserts ? It is in vain therefore that Plato would 
magnify the Deity by ascribing to him an impossible pow¬ 
er—that of rendering immortal and imperishable, beings, 
which, according to his own doctrine, are mortal and per¬ 
ishable, because material and created. Matter, according 
to Plato’s doctrine, being uncreated, and also contemporary 
and coeval with the creating power, it is possible, that it 
may resist his will. For even a creator can exercise no 
authority over that which he did not create. It is not, 
therefore, capable of being acted upon by violence, being 
free from all extrinsic necessity. With reference to this 

* In other words, the one creates out of nothing, the other out of matter 
already in existence.—(Tu.) 



principle, Plato himself says, “God cannot be acted upon 
by violence.” 

Now how is it, that Plato excludes Homer from his re¬ 
public because the latter represents Phoenix as saying, 

Urgstfroi Ss <rs mi ©so/' du<ro/',* 

The Gods themselves are flexible, 

when it is evident that the poet is speaking, not of the 
King, or (as Plato calls him) the creator of the gods, but of 
the inferior deities whom the Greeks regarded as very nu¬ 
merous, as we may learn from the expression ©so/ ©swv, 
which is applied to them. To the one, supreme God, 
Homer ascribes authority and power over all things in his 
story of the golden chain ;t and he seems to have regarded 
him as so far removed above the other deities, that he some¬ 
times speaks of the latter in conjunction with men ; as in 
the speech of Ulysses to Achilles, in allusion to Hector, 

Ma/Wai IxtfayXwg oriVuvog A/;, ztii n <riei 
’Avs'^as z5s ©soi)?.J 

Hector glares revenge, with rage 
Infuriate, and by Jove assisted, heeds 
Nor God nor man. 

Here Homer seems to me to express the ideas of the 
true God, which he, like Plato, had imbibed in Egypt. 
His meaning seems to be, that Idector, confiding in the 
really existing God, disregarded those which had no exist¬ 
ence. In another passage already quoted, by the use of a 
different but equivalent expression, substituting a pronoun 
for Plato’s participle, he calls ©sog aOrog, what Plato calls 
<ro ov. For I think that this expression of Phoenix has 
an emphatical import, the pronoun being intended to 

* Iliad, i. 493. 

+ Iliad, ix. 294. 

f Iliad, ix. 238. 



show that the reference is to the really existing God. The 
same language is used with the same view, in the response 
of the oracle mentioned before. 

Mouvoi XoikScuoi do(pii]v Xa^ov ^<5’ ap E/3^afo« 

Auroygv^Tov avaxra tfg/3a£o/xsvoi ©sov aurov.* 

Again, how can Plato censure Homer for asserting, that the 
gods are flexible, when he evidently uses the term in a 
good sense [i. e. speaks of it as a useful attribute]? We 
know that those who are desirous of propitiating the Deity 
by prayers and oblations, think it necessary to relinquish 
and repent of sin. Now they who consider the Deity as 
in this sense inflexible, can have no motive for abandoning 
their sins, since they must look upon repentance as wholly 

But, above all, how can the philosopher censure the 
poet for saying that the gods are changeable, when he him¬ 
self has made even the maker of those gods so changeable 
as to call the inferior deities at one time mortal and at an¬ 
other immortal ; and not only this, but to assert that the 
matter, of which they must of necessity be formed, is both 
created and uncreated. He seems to have been wholly un¬ 
conscious, that of the very fault which he charges upon Ho¬ 
mer, he is equally guilty, nay more so $ for Homer, so 
far from ascribing mutability to the supreme Deity, direct¬ 
ly asserts the contrary. 

2 yag s/jJjv tfaXivay^srov, s<5’ dtfaTigXov, 

Ou<5’ arcXsu-rriTov y’, o <ri xsv xstpaXvj xuravsud&j’™ 

Nought, by my nod confirmed. 

May, after, be reversed or rendered vain. 

'* 'Ayvwg is the last word in the former quotation; and according to Syl- 
burgius the same reading is given by Eusebius— Dcmonslr. Evang. —(Tit.) 
t Iliad, i. 526. 



Plato, however, seems to have been guilty of these ab¬ 
surdities, entirely through fear of his idolatrous country¬ 
men. He seems to have thought it necessary to commu¬ 
nicate what he learned respecting the true God from Mo¬ 
ses and the prophets, as an original conception of his own. 
Pie had been struck with admiration at the mystical name 
o cjv, and after profound reflection on this concise descrip¬ 
tion, he concluded that the Deity by means of it intended 
to express his own eternity—the single syllable &v includ¬ 
ing not merely one period of time, but three, the past, the 
present, and the future. That Plato understood this participle 
in this extended sense (as to time) is evident from his own 
expression, ov <51 ou<5sVo ts. For ou’<5sVors is not used with re 
ference to the past, as some suppose, but to the future, a 
fact clearly ascertained from the usage of profane writers. 
Now Plato, wishing to explain this mystical expression of 
God’s eternity to those who were unacquainted with it, 
uses these words —“ God, as the ancient saying is, (uif^sp 
xa< 6 vaXaiog Xoyos) includes in himself, the beginning, and 
the end, and the midst of all things.” By rfocXuios Xoyog he 
evidently means the law of Moses, his dread of the hem¬ 
lock inducing him to suppress the name of a man, whose 
doctrines were so odious to the Greeks. The epithet 
ancient , however, is sufficient to show to what he refers. 
For that the most ancient law was that of Moses, has al¬ 
ready been shown from the testimony of Diodorus and 
others; the former, declaring that Moses was a lawgiver 
at a time when the characters were not yet invented, in 
which the books of the Greeks are written. And let no 
one think it improbable, that the truths thus mystically 
taught by Plato respecting the eternity of God were de¬ 
rived from the books of Moses. For you will find that he 
elsewhere covertly ascribes to the prophets, under God, 
the only knowledge of certain principles, he says, u I lay 
down the principle of fire and of certain other bodies, in 



such a manner as I can ; but the real principles of those 
substances are known only to God and to his friends.” To 
whom does he here apply the name of friends of God, if 
not to Moses and the prophets ? 

From the books of Moses and the prophets he also gath¬ 
ered some idea of the judgment, which he thus retails in 
the first book of his Republic. “When a man believes 
the end of life to be approaching, there arises in his mind 
a dread and solicitude to which he was before a stranger. 
The stories which he has heard and laughed at, respecting 
hell, and punishment there inflicted on the wicked, now 
torment his soul with an apprehension that they may pos¬ 
sibly be true. And he gives the more attention to these 
subjects at such a time, both on account of the natural in¬ 
firmity of age and his near approach to a future state. Be¬ 
ing filled, therefore, with fear and forebodings, he begins 
to reason and to inquire whether he has committed any sin. 
If he perceives in his past life a great number of offences, 
he awakes like a child from a dream, and spends in des¬ 
pondency the remainder of his days ;—while on the other 
hand, if he is conscious of no iniquity, a delightful hope is 
constantly present with him, the sweet solace of old age, 
as Pindar expresses it, when he says—‘ He whose life is 
spent in acts of piety and justice, shall have for his com¬ 
panion cherishing and animating hope, the solace of old 
age, by which the varying minds of men are principally 
governed . 3 ” 

This extract is from the first book of his Republic. In 
the tenth, he clearly and distinctly repeats what he had 
gathered from the prophets on the subject of the Judg¬ 
ment, not acknowledging them as the source of his infor¬ 
mation ; but professing to have heard what he relates from 
a man who had been killed in battle, and when about to 
be buried on the twelfth day after his death, revived upon 
the funeral pile, and described what he had seen in his 



absence from the body. “ He said that he had been present 
there when one person was asked by another, where Aridseus 
the great was to be found. This Aridasus had reigned in 
a city of Pamphylia, had murdered his aged father and his 
elder brother, and had committed, as it was said, many 
other enormous crimes. The person questioned respect¬ 
ing him replied —‘ He is not here—nor H he likely to come 
here. For among other dreadful spectacles which we 
witnessed when we came to the mouth of the pit, in order 
to reascend after having suffered our appointed punishment, 
we beheld him and others with him, principally kings; 
though there were also some private men, who were emi¬ 
nent for wickedness. Upon these wretches offering to as¬ 
cend, the mouth of the pit would not suffer them to pass ; 
but constantly gave a hideous bellowing when any attempt¬ 
ed to come up, whose crimes were wholly inexpiable, or 
whose punishment was not yet complete. We also saw, 
standing by, certain wild-looking men of fiery aspect, who 
no sooner heard the bellowing, than they seized upon Ari- 
dasus and his companions, and after binding them hand and 
foot, threw them down, flayed them, and dragged them 
over thorns. They, at the same time, informed the spec¬ 
tators for what crimes these torments were inflicted, and 
told them, that the victims were now to be taken and 
thrown into Tartarus. There, he said, among a multitude 
of horrors, the greatest was the bellowing of the pit when 
an attempt was made to reascend, while it was the greatest 
joy to any one to be allowed to escape in silence. Such 
he described as the punishments of the place, and the re¬ 
wards of the pious as directly opposite.” 

In this passage, Plato appears to me to have copied from 
the books of the Prophets, not only the doctrine of a final 
judgment, but also that of the resurrection, in which the 
Greeks did not believe. For by describing the soul as 
enduring punishment in conjunction with the body, his ob- 



ject seems to be to intimate his belief in the future resur¬ 
rection of the latter. That he does describe such a con¬ 
junction is very evident. For otherwise, how could Ari- 
dseus and his companions suffer the torments related 
above, when they had left their heads, and hands, and feet, 
and skin behind them, on the earth ? It will scarcely be 
said, that the soul is furnished with such appendages. The 
truth is, Plato merely teaches what the Prophets had be¬ 
fore taught him, that there will be a resurrection of the 
body, and that the body and the soul will appear together 
in the day of judgment. He is not alone, as a teacher of 
this doctrine. Homer also, who had acquired the same 
knowledge when in Egypt, represents Tityus as undergo¬ 
ing a similar punishment. The words are in the descrip¬ 
tion given by Ulysses to Alcinous, of his communion with 
the ghosts. 

K at Tjtuov elSov ya'r/jg igixuSsog uiov, 

Ksi/xsvov i\i SazssSu, o d' irf* svvsa xslro rfshsdga 
Turfs 6s fuv sxarsgQs rfapYifxsvu ijrfap sxsigov.* 

There also Tityus on the ground I saw 
Extended, offspring of the glorious earth ; 

Nine acres he o’erspread, and, at his side 
Stationed, two vultures on his liver preyed. 

The poet surely cannot intend to represent the soul in 
its separate state as having a liver. In the same way he 
speaks of Sisyphus and Tantalus as suffering bodily tor¬ 
ments. As to the fact, that many things which Homer has 
inserted in his poems, were picked up in Egypt, we have 
the testimony of Diodorus your most respectable historian. 
He states, for example, it was in Egypt that the poet heard of 
the’ne7?e7i/Ae,adrugoccasioning an oblivion of all misfortunes, 
which Helen received from Polydamna the wife of Theon, 

* Odyssey, xi. 575» 



and carried with her to Sparta ; and which she is repre¬ 
sented as employing to assuage the grief occasioned by a 
speech of Menelaus, during the visit of Telemachus to 
Lacedaemon.* Again, the epithet of golden , as applied to 
Venus he learned from an Egyptian tradition ; there being 
in Egypt a grove and plain dedicated to her under that name. 
But it may be asked, for what purpose I introduce these 
circumstances here ? To show the probability of his having 
thus transferred to his writings many things derived from 
the books of the prophets—as, for instance, the Mosaic ac¬ 
count of the creation. The statement made by Moses is this. 
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, 
and afterwards the sun, moon, and stars. Homer, learning 
this in Egypt, and being pleased with this account of the 
matter, seems to have intended his description of the 
shield manufactured by Vulcan for Achilles as a symboli¬ 
cal account of the creation. 

’Ev fjtiv youav g'rsuf, ’iv S’ xguv ov, iv Si daXatfoW 
’Hs'Xiov <r’ axafiavTU rfsXryvvjv <r£ TrX^dstfav, 

’Ev (5s tc rsigsu <Kuv<ru ra r’igavos sdrstpavurcuA 

There he described the earth, the heaven, the sea, 

The sun that rests not, and the moon full orbed, 

There also, all the stars, which round about, 

As with a radiant frontlet bind the skies. 

In the garden of Alcinous he presents us with a picture of 
Paradise, representing it as always flourishing and abound¬ 
ing in fruit. 

’EvDa (5s SevSgea. [xax^d tiscpiixet rrfkeQouvru, 

’Ox vco ; xa ' £ oiai ) xa 'i ftrjXs'ai ayXaoxa^'n'oi, &C. f 

There grew luxuriant many a lolly tree, 

Pomegranate, pear, the apple blushing bright, 

The honied fig, and unctuous olive smooth. 

* Odyssey, iv. 228. t Iliad, xviii. 483. f Odyssey, vii. 114. 



Those fruits, nor winter’s cold nor summer’s heat, 

Fear ever, fail not, wither not, but hang 
Perennial, while unceasing zephyrs breathe 
Gently on all, &c. &c. 

Do not these verses contain an exact imitation of what 
Moses writes respecting paradise ? So if any one will ex¬ 
amine the description of the Tower, which men erected, 
in the vain hope of ascending into heaven—he will find it 
allegorically represented by the poet in the story of Otus 
and Ephialtes. 

Oi £<x j mi d&avaroKfiv dnsikTjrrjV h ’OAupwrw 
‘t'uXo'ffi 5a tfT'/jtfsiv noXuaixog croAsp-oio. 

"O(Wav stf’OuAilpwr'w [xs[xa&av 6 s[msv, aurdg in' ’Otfdr) 

PGjAiov sivoffitpuAAov, iv’^avlg djJjf3aTog sIy).* 

Against the gods 
Themselves they threatened war, and to excite 
The din of battle in the realms above, 

To the Olympian summit they essayed 
To heave up Ossa, and to Ossa’s crown 
Branch-waving Pelion ; so to climb the heavens. 

In the same way we find described the fall from heaven 
of the adversary of our race, whom the sacred Scriptures 
call Aim/3oAo£, from his deception of our first parents. It 
will be seen, indeed, that the poet does not use this name, 
but ”Ary] or Injury , a characteristic title derived from the 
wicked disposition of the being to whom it is applied. This 
he informs us, was expelled from heaven by the Deity, 
remembering, no doubt, the words of the prophet Isaiah 
on the same subject. 

Aun'xa <5’eiX ”Atv\m xe(paXr]g Aitfa^o'ffXoxapoio, 

Xwop.svo 5 cpgstf'iv ytfU, xai w(xorf£ xagregov o'fxov, 
is OuXv[xnov re xai oigavov uiregoevra 
Avng iXeCdeifdai ”A rr t v, 5} nuvrag aurai. 

* Odyssey, xi. 314. 




skfwv e££<4' £v urf’zgoLvz; da'rsgosvrog 
Xsipi irsgKtrf-^aS’ Taya. 8'hero sgy’civdguir uv.* 

She spake ; then anguish stung the heart of Jove 

Deeply, and seizing by her glossy locks 

The goddess Ate, in his wrath he swore 

That never to the starry skies again 

And the Olympian height he would permit 

The universal mischief to return. 

So saying, he whirled and cast her from the skies. 

Plato, as we have already seen, places next to God and 
matter, as a universal principle, s’/Sos or form. This doctrine he 
seems to have derived from Moses, from whom he certainly 
borrows the term s7<5o s, but attaches a mistaken meaning to 
it, not having learned, that the words of the prophet were 
to be understood in a mystical sense. Moses relates, that 
God having directed him to build the tabernacle, said, 
According to all that I shew thee , after the pattern of the 
tabernacle , and the pattern of all the instruments thereof\ 
even so shall ye make it; and again, Look that thou make 
them after their pattern , which was showed thee in 
the mount; and again, a little after, Thou shall rear up 
the tabernacle according to the fashion thereof which was 
showed thee in the mount. Plato perusing these pas¬ 
sages and mistaking the true import of the terms, inferred 
from them, that there is a distinct form of things which 
is in existence before the visible form, and is called the 
pattern (rfagdSeryiJM and tvvos) in the words quoted above. 
A mistake of the same kind he seems to have made with 
respect to the creation of the earth, the heavens, and man, 
supposing them also to have had a distinct and pre-existent 
form. Moses says, In the beginning God created the 
heavens and the earth ; and adds, The earth was ivithout 
form and void (do|owos mi umradxsuudros.) These last 

* Iliad, xix. 126. 

t Exodus xxv. 9. 40. and xxiv. 39. 



words Plato supposed to have reference to the pre-existent 
form of the earth, and the former to the visible earth, 
which God created in exact correspondence with the other. 
So with regard to the heavens, he supposes the firmament 
which God is said to have made, to be the visible heaven ; 
while that which was mentioned before is the intellectual 
or pre-existent heaven, of which the prophet is speaking, 
when he says, Ou^avos <rs £gavS tw xugi iw, <5s yfy HSuxs roTg vioTs 
ruv dvdgutfuv. 

He falls into the same error with respect to man. Moses 
mentions man, at first, and then after recording many other 
creations describes the mode of his formation, saying, God 
made man of the dust of the ground. Plato therefore ima¬ 
gined, that the first mentioned existed before the man who 
was created, and that the former was the model on which 
the latter was formed. Homer also seems to have been 
acquainted with these words of the sacred history, Dust 
thou art , and unto dust shalt thou return. For he applies 
this term to the dead body of Hector, when he speaks of 
its being dragged around the walls by Achilles ; 

Kwipigv ydg Srj youav ds ixi^Si (XSvsaivwv. * 

Menelaus, too, uses the same language in his speech to 
the Greeks on their hesitating to accept the challenge of 
Hector ; 

’AAV vjasis [lev rfdvrsg ilSug xai ycuu yevoiffQs. — t 

his excess of anger leading him to resolve their bodies, as it 
were, into their constituent elements. 

From what source could Piato have derived the idea of Ju 
piter’s winged chariot but from the following description by 
the prophet? Then the glory of the Lord departed from 
off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cheru- 

* Iliad xxiv. 54. 

t Iliad vii. 99. 



61ms. And the cherubims lifted up their wings and 
mounted up from the earth in my sight. When they went 
out , the wheels also were beside them—and the glory of the 
God of Israel was over them and above. * Plato, excited by 
this sublime description, with great boldness of speech, 
exclaims, “The great God drives his winged chariot through 
the skies.” To what source shall we trace his doctrine, 
that the essence of God is fire, if not to a misconception 
of the following passage in the third book of Kings, 
The Lord was not in the wind; and after the wind 
an earthquake , but the Lord was not in the earthquake: 
and after the earthquake afire; but the Lord was not 
in the fire ; and after the fire a still small voice. || Now 
this cannot be comprehended even by believers, except 
after profound reflection. But Plato, from a want of pro¬ 
per attention to the language, falls into a mistake, and 
asserts that “ God was in the fire.” 

We shall find on diligent inquiry, also, that the gift de¬ 
scending from God upon holy men, which is called in the 
sacred Scriptures the Holy Spirit,is mentioned in Plato’s dis¬ 
course to Menon. Not indeed under the real name,for he was 
afraid of being considered a public enemy if he should be 
discovered to promulgate the doctrines of the prophets. 
But he acknowledges that there is such an influence which 
descends from God upon men, and which he calls ’APETH, 
virtue. For in his discourse to Menon respecting memory, 
after discussing various questions respecting this virtue, as, 
whether it is to be imparted by instruction or acquired by 
exercise ; or whether it can be obtained in neither way, 
but is a gift of nature, he concludes the matter thus : “ If 
in what has been said, our inquiries and assertions have 
been correct, the conclusion must be, that virtue is neither 
bestowed by nature nor imparted by instruction, but com- 

* Ezekiel, x. 18, 19. + 1 Kings, xix. 11, 12. 



municated by a divine influence—and that not impercepti¬ 
bly to those upon whom it is conferred.” In these words 
I think it evident, that he merely repeats with reference 
to what he calls virtue, the doctrine taught by the prophets 
with reference to the Holy Spirit ; and as the sacred wri¬ 
ters teach, that the Holy Spirit, though one, is divided into 
seven spirits, so Plato, while he speaks of virtue as one, 
asserts that it is divided into four virtues. And although he 
does not mention the Holy Spirit, he allegorically repeats all 
the doctrines of the Scriptures respecting it. The conclu¬ 
sion of his discourse to Menon is as follows : “ From this 
reasoning it appears, 0 Menon, that to those who receive this 
virtue at all, it is dispensed by the immediate power of God. 
The inodein which it is imparted we shalllcnowmore clearly, 
when we have ascertained a previous point—what virtue 
is.* Here we see, that although he gives no other title 
than virtue to this heavenly gift, he thinks it a point 
worthy of investigation, whether it has not a more appro¬ 
priate name ; his dread of being thought a disciple of the 
prophets still preventing his calling it the Holy Spirit. 

Again how did Plato know, that time and heaven were 
created together? “Time and heaven,” says he, “are coeval; 
so that, as they began together, they shall together be dis¬ 
solved, when the period of their dissolution has arrived.” 
Is not this borrowed from the Mosaic history ? He knew, 
that time arises from the succession of davs and months and 
years. He knew, too, that this succession commenced on 
the first day after the creation of the heavens ; for, says 
Moses, God created the heavens and the earth, after 
which he adds, and the evening and the morning ivere the 
first day. Plato, however, uses the whole for a part, in¬ 
stituting xgovos for 7][xega, not daring to copy the words of 
Moses too closely, lest he should be arraigned before the 
people. From the same quarter he must have derived his 
opinion respecting the dissolution of the heavens, and must 



have known, too, that the same doctrines were in the same 
manner taught in the writings of the prophets. 

If we examine the history of idolatrous worship, and 
endeavour to ascertain why they who first made images for 
this purpose gave them a human form, I think we shall 
be able to trace this custom also to the Scriptures. We are 
told by Moses that God said, Let us make man in our 
own image, and after our likeness. It being reported 
among men, therefore, that^man was created in the image of 
God, and resembled him in form, they began to make 
idols in the same form, supposing that by copying the 
resemblance of the Deity, they would imitate himself. 

I have detailed these facts, for the purpose of proving, 
that no true knowledge of religion is to be gained from 
men, whose most admired conceptions are not original, 
but borrowed from the inspired writers, and disguised in 
allegory. The time has arrived, O Greeks, when, know¬ 
ing as you do that our teachers were far more ancient than 
all your masters of philosophy, you should abandon the 
ancient delusion of your fathers, and diligently study the 
sacred books of Moses and the prophets, that you may ob¬ 
tain a knowledge of the true religion. They practise no 
rhetorical arts, they pretend to no powers of persuasion or 
conviction, which are necessary only for such as wish 
to tamper with the truth. But applying to every thing 
its plain and proper epithet, they simply teach us what the 
Holy Spirit, by whom they were inspired, thought proper 
to communicate to man. Throwing aside, therefore, all false 
shame, renounce the errors of your ancestors, desist from 
your vain affectation of a false superiority, which is now 
the source of your greatest enjoyment, and accept the ad¬ 
vantages proposed to you. You cannot sin either against 
yourselves or others, by relinquishing the false belief of 
men, who are now in hell repenting too late of their fatal 
error. Oh, could they but speak to you from their pre- 

3 A 



sent abode, and recount to you all that they have suffered 
since the termination of their mortal existence, you would 
know what that misery is, which you are exhorted to avoid. 
But since you cannot derive instruction from them, nor 
from those who are falsely called philosophers on earth, 
your last resort is to the Sacred Scriptures. In them you 
are not to look for elegance of language, since the glory 
of the true religion consists in things, not words. But 
from them, you may learn the means of eternal life. The 
men who have unlawfully usurped the title of philoso¬ 
phers, are convicted of ignorance, not only by their differ¬ 
ing in opinion from each other, but by the inconsistency 
of their doctrine with itself. 

Now if the discovery of the truth is the end of true 
philosophy, how can they be called philosophers who have 
wholly failed in accomplishing that end ? And if Socrates, 
the greatest of them all, who was pronounced even by an 
oracle, to be the wisest of men, confessed, that he knew 
nothing, how is it, that his disciples profess to be familiar, 
even with things in heaven. Socrates himself declared, 
that he had received the name of Wise, merely because 
while other men affected to know things of which they 
knew nothing, he never scrupled to confess his ignorance. 
“If I have any claim,” said he, “ to the character of a wise 
man, it arises from this simple circumstance, that I never 
imagine myself to know what I really know not.” Nor is 
this acknowledgment to be considered as ironical, or as 
spoken under an assumed character, as is frequently the 
case in his conversations. For he concludes his defence 
before the Areopagus, when about to be remanded to pri¬ 
son, with a similar confession, which is unequivocally se¬ 
rious and severe. (t The time is come, when we must 
part—you to live on, and myself to die. Which condition 
is the more desirable, is known to none but God.”—Thus, 
in his last public address, ascribing to God alone the know- 



ledge of things unknown to man. His successors, however, 
unable as they were to comprehend even sublunary things, 
boasted of an intimate acquaintance with heaven. Aristo¬ 
tle, as we have seen, pretending to a more accurate know¬ 
ledge of the upper world, than his master Plato, declared 
that the essence of God was not fire , but what he calls the 
fifth etherial element. He employed himself in attempt¬ 
ing to establish his own opinion upon these subjects, by 
argument and eloquence, until he discovered that he was 
not even wise enough to comprehend the nature of the 
Euripus, and then from mere shame, put an end to his ex¬ 
istence.* Let no one then prefer the eloquence of these 
writers to his own salvation ; but rather, according to the 
ancient fable, close his ears with wax, and be deaf to 
the enchanting but fatal music of the siren. The men of 
whom I speak make use of their command over language 
as a tempting bait to allure others from true religion, after 
the example of those who first taught the doctrines of po¬ 
lytheism. To such enticements I entreat you not to yield, 
but on the contrary, to peruse with diligence the writings 
of our prophets. And if you are unwilling, either from 
indolence, or an attachment to the superstition of your 
fathers, to read these books, from which alone you can 
learn even the first principle of true religion, the unity 
of God, you will regard at least the authority of him 
who first taught the existence of a plurality of deities. I 

* There are several conflicting accounts of the death of Aristotle. 
That which is here alluded to has been by some considered a fabri¬ 
cation of Justin Martyr, or Gregory Nazianzen. The story is this : 
The Euripus (a narrow sea between Euboea and Bceotia, on the shore 
of which stood Chalcis, where the philosopher spent the latter part of 
his life) ebbed and flowed seven times a day; and Aristotle, being 
unable to explain the phcenomenon, threw himself into it, exclaiming, 

“ Since Aristotle cannot comprehend Euripus, let Euripus compre¬ 
hend Aristotle.”—(T r.) 



mean the poet Orpheus, who afterwards made a becoming 
and honourable recantation of his former errors. To his 
authority I would have you yield, as well as to that of 
others, who have given similar instructions respecting the 
unity of God. For by the direction of Divine Providence, 
some of your writers have been compelled, as we have seen, 
to attest the truth of our sacred books, and the doctrines 
which they contain, that all the arguments in favour of 
polytheism might be taken away, and an opportunity af¬ 
forded to its followers of embracing a purer faith. 

Some genuine religious knowledge may also be derived 
from the ancient Sibyl, whose oracular responses, pro¬ 
nounced under the influence of an extraordinary inspira¬ 
tion, we regard as not far inferior in authority to the pro¬ 
phecies themselves. This Sibyl, it is said, was the daugh¬ 
ter of Berosus, the Chaldean historian, and came over from 
Babylon to Cuma, in Campania, not far from Baise where 
the warm baths are—and there uttered her responses. I 
myself, when I visited the city, saw an edifice wonderful¬ 
ly and admirably formed of a single stone, in which, as the 
inhabitants told us on the authority of an ancient tradition, 
she was wont to pronounce her oracles. They also showed 
us three cisterns hewn from the same stone, in which she 
used to bathe, after which she arrayed herself in a robe, 
ascended into the inner chamber of the edifice, which was 
also built from the same stone, where she uttered her pre¬ 
diction, seated on the highest step of a throne. This Sibyl 
has been mentioned by many writers—among the rest by 
Plato in his Phaedrus. He seems indeed to have been in¬ 
duced by the perusal of her prophecies to regard all per¬ 
sons of the same character as divine. For he had seen 
many of the things predicted by her long before, actually 
come to pass ; and being struck with astonishment at the 
fact, he writes thus upon the subject in his address to Me- 
non. (t We might very properly apply the epithet divine 



to those whom we now call xgyrff m5°1 ;* and especially might 
we consider as divine, and divinely inspired, and, indeed, 
pervaded by the Deity, those who speak the truth on the 
most important subjects, yet know nothing of what they 
are saying. ” This passage contains an evident allusion to 
the verses of the Sibyl, who had not, like ordinary poets, 
the power of correcting what she uttered according to the 
rules of metre. Her gift of prophecy, continued only dur¬ 
ing the time of her inspiration, and when that had subsid¬ 
ed, all recollection of her own words was gone. This will 
account for the fact, that the measure of the Sibylline verses 
is sometimes incomplete. And, indeed, the persons who 
conduct strangers to view the curiosities of Cuma, (and who 
pointed out to me a brazen urn, which, they said, contained 
her ashes,) informed us, among other facts which they pro¬ 
fessed to have derived from their ancestors, that the metrical 
errors found in the responses which have been preserved, 
arose from the fact that the Sibyl herself retained no recollec¬ 
tion of what she had uttered, when the moment of supernatu¬ 
ral excitement was gone; and that those by whom the res¬ 
ponses were received and recorded were uneducated men, 
and of course, unacquainted with the rules of verse. It is evi¬ 
dently in allusion to this circumstance that Plato speaks of 
those who utter the truth on the most important subjects, 
yet know nothing of what they are saying. But since the 
truth of religious doctrines has no dependence either on the 
accuracy of poetic measures, nor on that species of learn¬ 
ing which is valued among you, let us leave the considera¬ 
tion of mere words and numbers, and impartially examine 
the substance of the Sibylline responses. Reflect, I en¬ 
treat you, of what blessings she was made the harbinger, 
when she predicted unequivocally the advent of our Sa¬ 
viour Jesus Christ, who, being the Word of God, and the 
same with God in power, assumed the form of man (the 

* Soothsayers, pronouncers of Oracles. 


image and likeness of his Maker) that he might revive the 
religion taught to our first parents, from which their chil¬ 
dren had apostatized under the influence of a malignant 
fiend, and turned to the worship of non-existent deities. 
But if you feel any hesitation in receiving our account of 
the creation of man, appeal to those in whom you still place 
confidence, and learn from them, that in a hymn, which an 
oracle once addressed, at the request of an individual, to 
the Omnipotent God, we have these words, 

"Ov ov irXacag pegorfuv, ’ASci/a <5s xaXidcfag. 

The first man whom he made, he called Adam. 

This hymn is preserved by many whom we know, for 
the confusion of such as refuse to acknowledge the truth, 
though proved by universal testimony. 

Unless then, 0 Greeks, you regard this false imagina¬ 
tion respecting a plurality of Gods, as of more importance 
than your own salvation, I would again exhort you to be¬ 
lieve the testimony of the ancient Sibyl, whose books are at 
this time extant in every quarter of the globe—her declara¬ 
tions respecting the imaginary beings whom you call gods, 
and her predictions of the approaching advent of our Sa¬ 
viour, and of what he should accomplish. But if any 
should still suppose, that a knowledge of the truth may be 
derived from your ancient teachers of philosophy, listen to 
Acmon and to Hermus, the former of whom applies to 
God the title Uayxgvcpog, or totally inscrutable , while the 
latter declares, that “ to know God is difficult, and that 
even to one who could comprehend his nature, to describe 
it would be impossible.” To whatever authority, there¬ 
fore, we appeal, we find it to be the conclusion of the whole 
matter, that a knowledge of God, and of the true religion, 
can be learned only from the prophets, who taught by 
inspiration from above. 



®fjc stuKa ot tljc ©15 ©tfitamcnt, 


Professor in the University of Halle. 





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N .1 1 


UroN Germany, the eye of the serious theologian rests 
with a deep and painful interest. Grateful for the talents, 
learning and piety which she threw into the field to combat 
with the powers of darkness, and to liberate the moral and 
intellectual faculties of man from superstition, ignorance and 
degradation; grateful for the long list of worthies whose ex¬ 
amples and instructions have illustrated the doctrines of the 
cross; grateful also for the indefatigable research which has 
ransacked every nook and corner of the ancient and mo¬ 
dern world, to elucidate the language, idioms and allusions 
of the “ Book of Bookswhich has rescued from worms and 
dust, examined, appreciated and collated the sacred manu¬ 
scripts which, for centuries, had been doomed to the silence 
and oblivion of the cloister;—grateful for these and other 
important services in the cause of theological learning and 
of piety, he cannot but deplore, at the same time, the pre¬ 
sumptuous ardour of thought, the misapplied learning, the 
injudicious zeal, the looseness of sentiment, and the conse¬ 
quent low state of piety and morals which, since the middle 
of the last century, have marred the fairest portions of in¬ 
tellectual Germany. 

We look backward, with a good degree of curiosity, 
through the last two centuries, in order to find an adequate 
cause for this great moral change ;* and we look forward, 
with intense solicitude, to the probable effects of this de- 

* This subject has been lately so ably handled by the Rev. Hugh 
James Rose, in a. Series of Discourses preached bejore the University 
of Cambridge (reprinted in the Repertory Vol. II. p. 387. and fol¬ 
lowing), and in the Review of these discourses in The Quarterly 
Theological Review for March. 1826, that we must content ourselves 
with referring our readers to those publications for a full exposition 
of the probable causes which have operated to produce this change. 

3 B 


fection, upon the piety and Christian morality of those na¬ 
tions who are brought into literary contact with the Ger¬ 
mans. We cast also a benevolent look around us, anxious 
to discover some symptoms of returning health—a whole¬ 
some reaction, a consciousness of corroding disease gnawing 
at the vitals, a strengthening of the things that remain, an 
inflexible purpose of amendment, a returning to the doctrines 
of “the great God and our Saviour,” which the pious Re¬ 
formers—their professed exemplars—so sedulously taught. 

We have reason to believe that there exist, at present, 
circumstances which throw some rays of light across this 
dark picture, and relieve, in some measure, the gloomy fore¬ 
bodings we are disposed to indulge. 

1. The supremacy of philosophy in matters of Religion, 
so long, and with such pernicious consequences, insisted upon 
in the lecture-room, in the pulpit, in the elaborate commen¬ 
tary, and even in the books of private devotion, is beginning 
to be disputed ; or rather, to speak more properly, a sounder 
philosophy is taking the place of that rash spirit of specula¬ 
tion which had assumed its name. 

The imaginative, discursive and metaphysical genius of 
the German, freed from those restraining and controlling 
influences which a humble piety exerts, and forgetting the 
impassable limits of the human powers, has presumed to 
sit in judgment upon the revelation from heaven, invented 
a standard by which to decide upon the merits of its doc¬ 
trines, subjected its plainest declarations to the test of rea¬ 
son, rejected or explained away what it could not fathony 
called in question the inspiration of the Scriptures, and 
scattered the seeds of infidelity far and wide, even while 
clothed in the garb of a divine teacher and an ambassador 
of Christ. The theological professor has not hesitated un- 
blushingly to declare, when pressed with a genuine and well 
authenticated miracle; My philosophy forbids me to re¬ 
cognise the existence of a miracle. 

' 373 

Not less than four or five master-spirits have, within com¬ 
paratively few years, commanded, for the time being, almost 
universally, the admiration of the German literati. Leib¬ 
nitz, Wolf, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, like waves of the sea 
have chased each other forward, each one successively 
overwhelming its predecessor, until merged, in its turn, in 
comparative oblivion, by its triumphant successor. In the 
midst of their ever varying and discordant systems, some of 
their writers began to congratulate the nation as the only 
one in possession of a theology which lived, and breathed, 
and grew, while that of other nations was in a wretched 
state of torpor, fraught with error, degraded by irrational 
views of God, obscured by mysticism, destitute of improve¬ 
ment, invention, and rationality . 

We do not mean to assert that there have not existed 
some honourable exceptions to these remarks—some illus¬ 
trious scholars whose minds were sound, and whose senti¬ 
ments and pious conduct were such as comported with the 
word of God, which they professed to receive. But we 
think we are warranted by personal observation and reading, 
in saying, that this state of things, with its consequences, 
became so general as to form the prevailing features in the 
character of the most literary and best informed portion of 

If we may judge, however, from the modifications which 
the metaphysical philosophy is apparently undergoing, from 
the relaxing of its more rigid features, and from the disre¬ 
spect with which these philosophical speculations are begin¬ 
ning to be spoken of by certain influential writers, the sway 
of this falsely named philosophy is becoming daily less ex¬ 
tensive and imperious.* 

* “ Some of the metaphysical writers have lately also enlisted them¬ 
selves on the side of Christianity. Kpppen, in his Philosophie des 
Chrittentfiums, has attempted to show the truth of the doctrine ot 
Original sin on philosophical grounds. A celebrated physician of 

% % 


2. Some of the more serious and judicious of their theo¬ 
logians have, for some years past, candidly acknowledged 
and publicly deplored the state of theological opinion, and 
the almost imperceptible practical influence of Christianity'* 1 
wherever these loose opinions have gained currency; and r 
in some instances, a change of sentiment and a degree of 
recantation has taken place. The later productions of De 
Wette, Kaiser, and Ammon, for example, and some expres¬ 
sions which dropped from Staeudlin for some years before 
his decease, the evangelical views and pious labours of Tho- 
luck, and the increasing seriousness and spirituality among 
some of the theological students, encourage us to hope that 
the dawn of a brighter day is begun. 

3. The decided position which the present king of Prus¬ 
sia has taken, in favour of the promulgation of pure Gospel 
truth, his evangelical sentiments—not received by inherit¬ 
ance from his ancestors, but the result of an ingenuous ex¬ 
amination of the word of God, because he had “applied 
himself assiduously to the Bible, and sought therein the doc¬ 
trines taught by Christ and his Apostles”!—the influence 
which his opinions and deportment are calculated to exert, 
owing to the high and noble sphere in which he moves, not 
only upon the community at large, and upon his court, but 

Leipsic, Dr. Heinroth, has annoyed the Rationalists dreadfully, by 
a treatise on Anthropology, in which his views of the intellectual and 
moral part of man are entirely at variance with them, and in unison 
with the orthodox notions. The masterly nature of the work, and 
the high reputation of the author, were equally subject of annoyance 
with the Rationalists.” Rose’s Discourses. Repert. Vol. ii. p. 10. 

* “Bretschneider has published a pamphlet on this subject, called: 
Ueber die Unkirklichkeit dieser Zeit, in which he says, that 
so many have been pub linked, that he doubts if any tiling new can be 
said.” Rose’s Discourses. Repert. Vol. iii. p. 4. note. 

t Letter to the Dutchess of Anhalt Coethen, on her renouncing 
the Protestant religion for the Catholic. 


especially upon his universities,* seem to forebode a happy 
change, at no very distant period, in the moral aspect of 
Prussia. And when we consider the high standing of her 
theological professors, the reputation of her numerous and 
scattered universities, and their close connexion in language, 
manners, and literature, wfith the other German states, the 
anticipation is by no means a presumptuous one, that the 
whole of theological and literary Germany will come more 
or less under the benign influence of evangelical truth. 

4. Semler, who is regarded as the founder of the Ration¬ 
alizing school, commenced his neological career under cir¬ 
cumstances highly favourable to the dissemination of his 
doctrines. His daring intellect, his comprehensive range of 
thought, his ardent thirst for knowledge, his extensive litera¬ 
ry acquirements, commanded the admiration and confidence 
of his contemporaries. The plausibility and novelty of his 
views—which last quality is so bewitching to the German 
mind—prepared the way for their general reception. Seve¬ 
ral causes had been operating for some years before his ap¬ 
pearance, through whose instrumentality the theologians and 
the philosophers of Germany were predisposed to the cor¬ 
dial adoption and the industrious application of his principles. 
We allude to the want, which the Protestant churches expe¬ 
rienced, of control over the wildest and most licentious spirit 
of innovation, the loss of respect for their symbolical books, 
the misguided zeal of the Pietists who maintained that Chris¬ 
tianity consisted solely in virtue, and the consequent reaction 
which produced a philosophical and even a mathematical 
school of theology; and, finally, the disposition to employ 
this very philosophy to explain away and soften down the 
more obnoxious doctrines, and to elevate the unassisted ef¬ 
forts of human reason to a supremacy in matters of religion 
which it poorly merits, 

* tie lately elevated Tholuck to a high and commanding situa¬ 
tion in the University ot Halle, which is any thing but orthodox. 


But the brilliant talents of Semler no longer dazzle the 
eyes of his admiring countrymen. The effervescence is 
past. The novelty has ceased. The experiment has been 
made. An eventful but instructive portion of the history of 
theology in Germany, from the Reformation to the present 
time, furnishes a detail of facts upon which the speculative 
mind of the German may seize and theorize with hardly a 
possibility of error. It is ardently to be desired, that the 
German Church may profit by the lesson which the last two 
centuries have taught so clearly that “ he that runneth may 
read, and the wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err 

* _ 

5. The writings of Storr, Tittmann, Knapp, Tholuck, and 
others, are not consigned to neglect and oblivion. If we are 
not mistaken in the signs of the times, they, as well as their 
authors, are commanding an increased respect; whilst the 
latter, by their lives, have evinced, or are still evincing, that 
a sincere piety and the profoundest learning, a simple-hearted 
faith, and the keenest spirit of research, may form a lovely 
and harmonious union, ennoble the heart of the Christian, and 
shed a benignant light on all within the sphere of his influ¬ 

6. This little tract also, by Tholuck, which we have trans¬ 
lated for the Repertory, and which seems to have been de¬ 
signed by the author to awaken the attention of the students 
of theology more particularly, to the importance of the study 
of the Old Testament, is an additional item in the amount of 
encouragement. Although somewhat loosely put together, 
diffuse in style, and bordering on the enthusiastic in senti¬ 
ment, the spirit which it breathes, the entire subjection of 
reason to Revelation which it inculcates, the importance 
which it attaches to a living faith, the prominency which it 
gives to those views and doctrines which we are wont to re¬ 
gard as all-important to salvation, will, we doubt not, gratify 
our readers as a pledge of good things to come. 




Let us bear in mind also the national propensity 01 the 
Germans, under the influence of which the intellectual cha¬ 
racter of the student is formed. We allude to a strong thirst 
for abstract, refined, and sometimes vague speculations, of 
which, if we mistake not, there are some traces in the piece 
before us. Let us remember also the influence which, our 
early philosophical education is wont to exert upon our riper 
years, even where the spirit of meek and humble piety pre¬ 
dominates, and we shall not be startled at some few extrava¬ 
gancies of expression, or mystical and enthusiastical senti¬ 
ments, discoverable here and there in the writings of this 
promising young theologian. 

May the great Head of the Church revive in this land— 
the cradle of the Reformation—the spirit of the Reformers, 
so that the mantle of Luther may fall upon his professed fol¬ 
lowers and admirers,—that all who pretend to teach may be 
taught of God,—men of faith, learning, research, and above 
all, of ardent and unfeigned piety.—(Temp. Ed. & Tr.) 



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For the last twenty or thirty years, the sentiment has 
prevailed almost universally, both among theologians and 
private Christians, that the study of the Old Testament , 
for theologians , as well as the devotional reading of the 
same, for the laity , is either entirely prof tless, or, at 
least , promises but little advantage. Adapting our re¬ 
marks more especially to the theoiogia i, we shall attempt, 
in this Essay, clearly to show, 

I. The importance of the study of the Old Tes¬ 

II. The profound wisdom displayed in the provi¬ 

of the Hebrews ; and, 

III. The entire dependance of the New Testa¬ 
ment upon the Old ;—and that Christ is the sum 


As this subject has enlisted the attention of thinking men 
in all ages, it may naturally be expected, that many valuable 
thoughts have already been broached by others. It is not 
our design, therefore, in this Essay, to furnish much that is 
new, but merely to lay before the theologians of our day the 
substance of what has been already advanced. 

3 c 



I. Jlow far , then, do the books of the Old Testament 
deserve our serious study , even admitting the absence of 
all connexion with Christianity ? 

If steadfastness and independence be celebrated as dis¬ 
tinguished excellencies, in the character of an individual; 
much more are they worthy of our admiration, when exhi¬ 
bited in the character of a whole nation. Josephus ( Contr. 
dip ii. 31.) remarks: “Were it not a fact, that the Jewish 
nation is universally known, and their voluntary subjection 
to their laws, a matter of public notoriety, the Greeks—if 
our institutions were described to them, or if it were told 
them that, beyond the limits of the then known world, such 
a people had been discovered, entertaining such exalted con¬ 
ceptions of the Deity, and abiding true to their laws for so 
many centuries,—the Greeks, I say, would be in utter amaze¬ 
ment; for they know of nothing but continual change. 1 '' 

v But this constant variation and change , some one will 
object, produce life ; and it is this very life which elevates 
the Greeks so high on the scale of intellect, whilst the whole 
East has been torpid from time immemorial. But the grand 
object of human existence, is certainly not a mere activity 
of mind devoid of aim (which the Persian Dschelaleddin 
compares with the unceasing flow of a stream): for, when 
the truth is once discovered, it is quite superfluous to search 
for it anew ; and the Apostle of fhe Gentiles delineates, in 
the most striking manner, the character of all the heathen, 
of ancient and of modern times, when he describes them as 
“ ever learning and never able to come to the knowledge of 
the truth.” 

The Hebrews possessed a religious service, which, as we 
shall see, satisfied ihe demands of an humble mind, not yet 
elevated to the higher degrees of spirituality. To this ser¬ 
vice they continued faithful. In conformity with it, they 
fashioned their whole life ; and Josephus (Contr.dip. ii. 20.) 



ra ,_ > sav with justice : “ It alTorcis no ground for objection 
against us, that ice have discovered nothing new. It rather 
pr oves that ice needed nothing better.''' “What can we 
conceive more lovely,” continues this spirited writer, “than 
a state whose whole ad minis!"ation resembles a common re¬ 
ligious festival? Whilst other nations have preserved , 
sea cell/ for the space of a few days , their festivals and 
their mysteries , we celebrate, with inflexible purpose 
(’aM.era-jrsio'Toi), our religious ordinances, from century to 

Now, if such a perseverance and persistency be not the 
result of a deficiency of internal vigour and energy, it must 
be regarded as something truly noble; as in the case of 
Sparta, the conqueror of nations, whose praise is sounded 
far and wide, because she was enabled to adhere, for many 
centuries, to the brazen laws of Lycurgus. 

But who would venture to attribute to the Israelites a (]e- 
ficiency of internal vigour, who, without union in the times 
of the Judges; in a flourishing condition during the brilliant 
periods of a David and a Solomon; torn with internal com¬ 
motions, and harassed by wars from without, during the reigns 
of the kings; subjugated by their enemies in the Babylonian 
captivity ; and un.iej the Maccabees, with heroic energy, as¬ 
serting again tl•• • r pristine importance;—experienced all 
the vicissitudes which fall to the lot of nations. True, their 
want of energy and their extreme languor were but too ap¬ 
parent at the time of our Saviour. But a new order of 
thin gs was then introduced. Fearful were the last agonies, 
when the ruins ol Jerusalem entombed the antiquated and 
now unmeaning Sanctuary; as, long before, at Nineveh, the 
smouldering ruins of the royal palace had buried tiie eilerni- 
nate Sardinapaius, and, with him, the sunken glory of Assy¬ 
ria. It must, therefore, be highly instructive, to investigate 
the source of this brazen perseverance (irf^oyvwp.oo'y^,) 



which was noticed and admired in this people, at an early 
period, by the Grecian Hecataeus,* a isa ive of Abdera. 

If the inquiry be made, by what means the Spartan state 
was raised to its lofty elevation ; and if this inquiry must be 
answered by pointing to ambition and untameable pride, as 
the nurse of the Spartan constitution ; and to Lycurgus, en¬ 
deavouring to cherish and to strengthen the native rudeness! 
of the Doric tribe, and establishing the greatness of the citi¬ 
zens of Sparta, upon the brutal degradation of the legitimate 
inhabitants—the Lacedemonians then the Hebrew nation 
also will appear in a still more interesting light, the more of 
truth we discover in those words of Josephus :§ To account 
for our steadfast faith in God and his commandments, it is ne¬ 
cessary to recur to the fact, that our system of laws was far 
more useful than that of any other nation. For Moses re¬ 
garded alt the virtues as subordinate parts of piety to 
God, and not piety as a mere subdivision of virtue. In 
his legislation, he recognises all our actions as having ctva- 
<po£av ©siiv a relation to God." And no impartial his¬ 

torian will deny, that precisely in this uniform recognition 
of the relation of all events to God, is to be found the source 
of the great power of the Israelites ; inasmuch as those pe- 

* Josephus, Contr. Ap. i. 22. The arguments against the au¬ 
thenticity of Hecataeus, in Eichhorn’s Bibli thek, Vol. v. p.4Sl., are 
outweighed by those of Zorn, in his Eclogae Abderitae, Altona, 1730, 
p. 192. Who can tell, how much evil and false, this Hecataeus re¬ 
lated concerning the Jews, together with the good? Read what 
Zorn has said of Hecataeus the Milesian, in reference to this very 
thing, in the work above cited, p. 47. 

f Plutarch justly reprehends their stern and savage rigour, when 
Lycurgus, for example, extirpates all the vines, in order to prevent 
the use of wine. See Plut. De audiend. poet. ed. Wittenb. Vol. i- 
p. 52. 

f Manso’s Sparta , I. i. p. 129. 

i Contr. Ap. ii. 1G. 



riods when piety is languid or extinct, are the most deficient 
in firm and manly characters; for these are produced only 
by resting firmly and reposing confidently upon God. 

Next to the steadfastness and independence of the He¬ 
brews, their far-famed antiquity claims our respect. More 
than six hundred years before Lycurgus, Moses gave his 
Jaws. Six hundred years before Pindar, the king of the 
Hebrews composed his divine psalms. Three hundred years 
before the fabulous heroes, Orpheus, Hercules, and Theseus, 
sailed to Colchis, Moses founded a Theocracy fraught with 
the marks of divine wisdom. If we refuse to acknowledge 
the antiquity of the Pentateuch, still the historical facts are 
certain. But the antiquity of the Pentateuch is called in 
question, not by the student of history, but solely by theolo¬ 
gians, who are offended at its extraordinary colouring.* 

It fares with the remotest antiquity as with our infancy. 
Tot.a ilia a etas periit diluvio sicut inf anti am mergere 
solet oblivio, says St. Augustine; ^ Jill those years icvrc 
drowned in the deluge , as our infancy is wont to be 
merged in oblivion Of those ages we know, therefore, 
but little. What has been preserved, however, from those 
remote times, by tradition, is presented by Moses in the first 
ten chapters of Genesis, in a more intelligible form, than is 
found' in all the maze of Grecian, Indian, Egyptian, and 
Chinese fable.t Admitting that what Moses relates of the 

* For the authenticity of the Pentateuch, the late Jahn has argued 
profoundly, in Bengel’s Archiv, ti. & iii. Tuebingen, 1817 and 1818. 

f “ It is easy to see why I could mpddle only orally with the won¬ 
derfully learned and, often enough, learnedly wonderful, things 
which make a talk among us, out of Egypt, India, the world of fable, 
&c. merely because we prefer an obscure perception of wisdom at a 
distance, to a near and practical apprehension of it where it really 
exists. Thus much, however, is certain, that things are not rendered 
Gospel, by even the most extensive and intricate reading.” Schoels- 
ser’s JFeUgesc/iichte, Vol. i. Pt. 2. in the preface. 



ante-patriarchal times, belongs to an a«e of darkness, when 
tradT-w. exerted its transforming influence; stili, no one can 
den* tin important.truths contained in the chapter concern¬ 
ing the Creation and the Fail; nor can any one mistake the 
trulv historical colouring which shows itself in the historv of 
the patriarchs. To begin with the history of Abraham ; who 
would venture to assert that, after a thousand or sixteen hun¬ 
dred years, when every thing was now changed, some one 
took it' into his head to invent the expedition of the five 
kings against Sodom, in the description of which every 
thing betrays the pen of a contemporary ?* Slime pits, a ;d 
the dry erupt of earth impregnated with slime, impede the 
flight of the inhabitants of Sodom.t Fugitives direct their 
flight across the mountains of Judea, into the plain where 
Abraham had pitched his tent, and inform him of what had. 
transpired. Three hundred and eighteen “trained servants, 
born in his own house,” accompany Abraham. With him 
also were three confederates. On their return, they are hos¬ 
pitably received by tfie priest and king of Salem. Presents 
are given and received. What an air of genuine antiqueness 
pervades the whole ! How truly historical! Would not all 

* Let us listen to John v. Mueller: “On no book, have I reflect¬ 
ed so much; no one has afforded me so much pleasure as Moses. 
Nature is depicted in Moses with as much truth and fidelity, as in 
Homer; in a greater va.iety of forms, also, and in a more familiar dress. 
No condition of life, no age, no sex, but may find examples and warn¬ 
ing in these books. That Ezra wrote the books of Moses, is about 
as true as that you wrote them. There is quite another spirit in the 
ancient lawgiver. He wrote every thing for his times, for his peo¬ 
ple, and for his plan. I have in my mind a multitude of thoughts, 
with which I cannot to-dav make you acquainted; thh, however, is 
certain, that I might write a book for Moaes and the Prophets agamst 
the Raubis and the theologians. For, these folks had eyes and saw 
not;—especially were their sensibilities frozen, admitting they ever 
had any.” Letter to his brother. Werke , Vol. v. p. 78. 

f Gen. xir. 10. 



this, in the annals of every other people, be received as his¬ 
tory ? 

If the authenticity of Ossian is disputed,* because ships are 
there spoken of, at a time when the Caledonians had no¬ 
thing but curvcae , constructed of intertwisted oziers, cover¬ 
ed with ox-hides ;t because chimneys are there mentioned 
as in use among a people that scarcely had huts; because 
the hunted roe is spoken of, when Martial says, 


Nuda Caledonio sic pectora praebuit urso;— 

why shall we not regard that “ rust of antiquity,” that child¬ 
like simplicity of manners, so conspicuous in these Hebrew 
books, as a witness for their authenticity, and the genuineness 
of the history of the patriarchs. Abraham employs a piece 
of cunning, not to tell a falsehood, but to conceal the truth 
for Sarah was also his sister.§ Rebecca deceived the aged 
Isaac. Jacob, by a crafty contrivance, enlarges his flock, 
much to the prejudice of Laban. Instances such as these 
have been cited by the Tindals and the Celsuses of every age, 
against the authority of the Bible. But they are continually 
pressed with this question in return : Does not all this bear 
testimony to the veracity of narrators ? Consider only 
how much an interpolator might have interwoven,|| and 

* Mithridates , Vol. ii. f Caesar, Bell. Gall. 

J 1 Mos. xii. 13. $ cl) xx. 12. 

|| The most splendid testimony to the genuineness of the Hebrew 
accounts, is furnished by that passage of Hecafams the Milesian, 
cited by Diodorus Siculus from whom it has been preserved to us 
by Photius in his Md£io/2i/3Xiov, Cod. eexliv. [We subjoin to this 
note the following words from Townley's Illustrations , fyc. Vol. i. p. 
292. “ The Myriobihlion or Library is a Review of the works of two 

hundred and eighty authors, theologians, commentators, philosophers, 
historians, orators, physicians, aud grammarians. It'was undertaken 
at the request of his brother Tarasias, and composed whilst he was 
a layman, and,as it seems duiir.g an embassy atthe court ofRigdat. 
It is one of the most precious remains of antiquity; and is the model 



what palliating circumstances he might have introduced. 
Schloetzer* remarks of the Jews, that “ they stand promi¬ 
nent among the nations of the world , not merely in connex¬ 
ion with the Christian history, as the people of God, but as 
a powerful nation , who, in the season of their greatness, 
numbered more than five millions of souls; a cultivated 
nation, the depository of all the knowledge which re¬ 
mains to us from the remotest antiquity, long before 
the oldest records of the comparatively recent Greeks 
Josephus (Contr. dip. i. 2.) eloquently observes: “It is a 
matter of astonishment to me, that, in all that pertains to 
antiquity, mankind imagine they must confide in the Greeks 
alone, but not in us, and in others. For my part, I believe 
that precisely the contrary course must be pursued, if we 
are disposed, not to follow vain imaginations, but to search 
for the truth from the original sources themselves; for, 
among the Greeks, every thing is of recent date—a day 
or two old—the founding of states, for example, the 
invention of arts, the enactment of laws, and,—the 
most recent of all—their historical writings.” 

Let us now consider the spirit which breathes in this 
very ancient history. Every where we shall find the most 
lively apprehensions of the presence and character of the 

Diodorus Siculus styles the historian “ the minister of 
Providence“Let me not, 0, thou divine Providence 
says Lessing,! “ because thy footsteps are invisible, en- 

on which the critical journals have been formed, which in modern 
times, have so much engaged the learned ot different nations and 
contributed to the advancement of literature. An interesting account 
of this most learned and accomplished scholar, is given in Berring- 
ton’s Literary History of the Middle Ages , App. i pp. 554—562. His 
Myriobiblion, or Library , has been several times printed ; the best 
edition is that of And. Schottus, Rothom. fol. 1653.” [Tr.] 

* Weltgeschichte , 1792.^. 198. 

t Ueber die Erziehung des Mcnschengeschlcchts, p. 84. 



ieriain a doubt of thy existence. ” Divine vengeance 
reigns, with uncontrollable might, in the history of the world. 
Plato exclaims: 'O ©sog <irav<ra yeujxergsi — The Deity metes 
out all things. In the history of the Hebrews, how¬ 
ever, this all-pervading Deity appears, not as a dark and un¬ 
intelligible Adrasiea ; but, as Lavater expresses it, as an 
absolute God , —a free and almighty Sovereign, who re¬ 
veals himself to his chosen ones, and who, with wisdom 
and irresistible power creates and destroys. It is remarked 
by Philo: “ The Greeks lost sight of the Creator in the 
creature.” Just so, also, the historians who are c&soi iv <rw 
xoff/xM —without God in the world , forgat, and still continue 
to forget, that the God who metes out all things, is above 
and in the world. They affect to know the breath, which 
communicates life and motion to the otherwise dry and life¬ 
less collection of bones, sinews, and flesh.* If we are 
struck with the conduct of Herodotus,! who never forgets 
the hand of the Eternal, which regulates the movements of 
time, how much more important must it be, to discover the 
only God, the “ possessor of heaven and earth ' 1 ' 1 —thus he 
was styled by the royal priest Melc.hizedec,j—energizing in 
the history of the Hebrews? The goddess of Vengeance is 
seen flying through the histories of the Greeks; but the 
Jewish and the Christian religion were the first to exhibit 
the counselling, provident, and affectionate God, in the affairs 
of the world. And what is all history worth, without a re¬ 
gard to the original source, from which the noisy streams of 

time proceed? “ God is a sphere says the profound 

* ^ 

* The remark of Herder, in his Brief e uber das Stud. d. Theol. iii. 
p.323., that u Ecclesiastical history, without the Spirit of God, is 
like a Polyphemus, without his eye,” is strikingly applicable to the 
history of the Israelites. 

t See Herodotus, ed. Weseeling, p. 14, and Valkenaer’s note, 

p. 216. 

J 1 Mos. xiv. 19. 

3 D 



Proclus, “whose centre is every where , whose circumfer¬ 
ence is nowhere .” Where is this more true than in history. 

Thanks, therefore, to the Hebrews for having immediately, 
and through clhristianity, instructed us in the genuine spirit 
of history. It must be acknowledged that the nations of the 
East, in general, endeavour, with a sacred zeal, to dissolve 
the world in God, and thus to destroy the liberty of the 
creature while those of the West also strive, with a blind 
precipitancy, to evaporate God into the world. “ But, 
sunt certi denique finesf there is a middle-way, which he 
will find who is taught of the Spirit of God. 

As faith in the universal and wise government of the 
Highest, reigns in the history of the Israelites, so also confi¬ 
dence in his paternal care of each individual, pervades their 
didactic poetry, and inspires love and consolation. Into 
these mysteries, the eye of the pious heathen cast many a 
wistful look ; especially the enlightened eye of the noble 
Plutarch, who relates of Arion, that he desired to be rescued 
from a watery grave, for this reason particularly, that he 
might for the future confide more firmly in the gods.t And, 
indeed, in this as well as in other respects, ve are constrain¬ 
ed to exclaim, with John v. Mueller “Will not the Chae- 
ronaean rise up, at some future day, as a witness for the 
truth against a goodly number of theologians ?” The con¬ 
flict of the pious soul with sore afflictions, which serve to 
kindle its faith, as the fire waxes in the storm, where can 
we learn it better than in the admirable book of the Psalms ? 
And here, too, we never find a desperate grappling with 
dark powers, but trials which generate hope—a hope that 
“ maketh not ashamed.” But the internal excellencies of 

* It was a great offence to the pious Mohammedans, that the 
Arabian and Greek peripatetics admitted a (puffis. See the More JYe- 
vochirn of Maimonides, ed. Buxtorf. Basil, 1629. p. 159- 

* “ 'us X«/3oi Srewv <5ogav /3s/3aiav.” See Plut. Sept. Sapient. 

Conviv. ed. Wyttenb. i. 2. p. 141. f Werk-e, vii. p. 9. 



these books—which, although written during a period of thir¬ 
teen centuries (including the Apocrypha,) breathe the same 
spirit of divine elevation—are much too numerous, to per¬ 
mit a particular enumeration on the present occasion. We 
shall call the attention to one only—the idea which the Is¬ 
raelites entertained of the holiness of God , and the conse¬ 
quent sense of guilt, and feeling of humility. While the 
gods were regarded as more nearly resembling men, men 
also thought themselves to he more like the gods. An in¬ 
solent haughtiness blighted all the nobler blossoms of vir¬ 
tue. Socrates alone, in all antiquity, knew himself to be 
rich in the midst of his poverty. Would that he could 
also have banished that sarcastic smile, which bears witness 
to his pride of his own humility. There is a deep self- 
abasement which clings close to the side of real humility , 
with a simplicity at the same time which storms the 
very heavens. And if David had been a tenfold greater 
sinner than he was, his sins had all been obliterated by that 
simple-hearted humility and penitence which was, is, and 
will continue to be, a folly to all the heathen. Tarry only in 
the perusal of the single book of the Psalms, and an inexhaus¬ 
tible store of the profoundest moral sentiments will unfold 
itself to our view. “In my prosperity, I said, I shall not be 
moved,” says the royal servant of God, “but thou didst hide 
thy face, and I was troubled,”* “ Before I was afflicted I 
went astray; but now have I kept thy word,” is the song of 
another man of God.t Such language of humility was not 
heard throughout the whole extent of proud Greece, We 
must, however, for want of room, leave this part of the sub¬ 
ject, and endeavour to show, 

II. The profound wisdom displayed in the providen¬ 
tial leadings,and in the religious institutions of the He¬ 

* Read the excellent commentary of Luther, in Walch’s edition 
of his Works, i. p. 1391. f Ps. cix. 67. 



Let us first of all speak of the providential leadings of 
the Israelites. 

“ History,” says Leibnitz, u instructs us in the true philoso¬ 
phy.” The observation of Clarke also is well founded : “ In 
religion men are apt to be more easily wrought upon, and 
more strongly affected, by good testimony than by the 
strictest arguments Mankind, therefore, who are so 
much under the dominion of sense, cannot receive the truth 
by means of a system of abstract demonstrations, but only by 
means of facts ; as he alone can rightly be said to believe the 
doctrines and wonders of Christianity, who has himself ex¬ 
perienced and witnessed their power. The language of 
Providence is the most familiar language of God, addressed 
to the heart of every individual. Doctrinal and ethical 
knowledge was communicated, therefore, to the Israelites, 
by means of the leadings of Providence. 

Why, however, some one perhaps will ask, did God se¬ 
lect only one people, and reveal himself to them ? How 
comes it to pass that other nations advanced almost as far, 
without any special divine guidance? Why was precisely 
this people chosen ? The first question is met by the inge¬ 
nious St. Martin with a counter-question: “How does it 
happen, seeing so many members stood in need of the 
marrow-bones, that the body has but one ?”t Lessing 
replies to the other questions, comparing the human race to 

* Discourse concerning God, the Obligations of Nature, &c. p. 199. 

f In reference to this sentence, we are constrained to adopt the 
words of Castellio, on 1 Pet. iv. 6., “ Hunc locum non intelligo, ideo- 
que ad verbum transtuli ” The sentence in the original runs thus : 
“ Warum, da so viele Glieder der Markroehren beduerften, hat der 
Leib nur Eine ?” If the passage means to intimate that there is but one 
marrow-bone in the human frame , it is anatomically incorrect. If it 
means that white so many individual members or limbs required and are 
furnished with marrow-bones, th* body or trunk contains but o>e, it 
seems to be an inapposite reply to the question which it is intended 
to meet.—(T k.) 



an individual man: “ Will education appear useless, because 
the children of nature sometimes overtake, if not surpass, 
the children of education?” And again: “ Is it not of capital 
importance, that God should fashion to himself the most un¬ 
cultivated and the most rebellious people, so that the strug¬ 
gle between the divine and the human might be developed 
in the most striking manner ?” All this is undoubtedly true. 
But Lessing has overlooked the fact also, that no nation— 
the Persians the nearest; the Greeks, not at all—could cope 
with the Hebrews, in what was then, and is now, the ma¬ 
terial thing,—in humble and genuine knowledge of God: 
for every thing else is mere tinsel. He has also overlooked 
another circumstance, that a people whose eye is not single, 
is entirely unfit to receive a revelation ; that, therefore, nei¬ 
ther the imaginative Indians, nor the vain and speculative 
Greeks, nor the haughty Romans, could have received a re¬ 
velation without marring it. If we consult the records of 
the Hebrews, we shall discover that the experimental know¬ 
ledge of God, communicated through the medium of the 
senses and visible divine interpositions, was the main thing 
which prevented the entire apostacy of the corrupted race 
from that God who exclaims so emphatically:* “For who, 
as I, shall call, and shall declare it, and set it in order for me 
since 1 appointed the ancient people ? And the things that are 
coming and shall come, let them show unto them.” 

By the side of the special providential leadings of the 
Israelites, we may place the Law and the Prophets , as di¬ 
vine means of grace. “Into this land of wonders,” says John 
v. Mueller,t “Moses conducted the Israelites. From the 
summit of the mountain, where, of old, adoration was of¬ 
fered, the Israelites received their Laws. But the spirit of 
these laws was- itself a wonder.” This law, and the manner 
in which it was given, is become an offence to all unbelievers. 
But few of the heathen can extol the law as StraboJ does.§ 

* Is. xliv. 7. f Algem. G eschichte, i. p.439 J Lib. xvi. 

Origen, in his second book tfsgi expresses the belief “ that 



Among its defenders, however, a great diversity of opinion 
prevails. The learned Spencer endeavours to show, that some¬ 
thing must of necessity be borrowed from paganism, for the 
use of the people of Israel, if the stiff-necked race were to be 
prevented from entire apostacy. Opposed to him stands 
Witsen, who seeks to prove, that every thing which the Is¬ 
raelites possess, is peculiarly and appropriately their own. 
Between the two is Warburton, who, from the circumstance 
that only terrestrial rewards and punishments are insisted on, 
thinks to establish the divine origin of the Law. If, now, 
this one thing is indubitably certain, that the other nations 
have not been entirely neglected by God,—that they have 
derived many a divine stamen from the primeval revelation 
made toman; andif we seek to ascertain the principle of the 
universal economy of God, it will then appear to us perfectly 
clear, why the Israelites had so much in common with other 
nations. For, it seems to be established in the universal 
economy of the divine decrees, that a ceremonial worship 
and a sacrificial service should every where precede the 
worship “in spirit and in truth.” Whether the nations 
would not at once have received a system of spiritual doc¬ 
trines ; or, whether the Chinese and the Japanese are not 
already ripe for a purer faith, is beyond the power of any 
mortal to decide. We shall see and know, however, when the 
dial-plate is removed from the grand clock-work of the world. 

We find, therefore, among all the pagan nations, imposing 
ceremonies ; and among the Jews also, a splendid external 
worship; but—and here is the striking difference—monothe¬ 
ism, and a symbolical, and typical meaning stamp upon the 
Israelite worship a peculiar character. The religious laws 
of the Jews had plainly two grand objects in view;—to in¬ 
scribe monotheism upon the very tablet of the heart, and 
to awaken a lively sense of sin. Sin, Sin! This is the 
word which is heard again and again in the Old Testament; 

a clear understanding of the reasons of the Israelitic economy, and of 
all the Levitical laws, belongs to the privileges of the future life.” 



and had it not there, for centuries, rung in the ear, and fas¬ 
tened on the conscience, the joyful sound of Grace for 
Grace could not have been heard, at the time of Christ, as 
the watchword of the New Testament. What need of 
Grace have those heathen, who will hear nothing of Sin , 
while, alas ! they feel but too much its destructive conse¬ 
quences ? To this end was the whole system of sacrifices; 
to this end, the priesthood,—that all flesh might know that 
it is grass. It was obviously essential that thereby the law 
should prepare the way for Christianity. In every view, the 
sacrificial worship must be regarded as one of the most un¬ 
accountable institutions of the ancient world. Strange, in¬ 
deed, that uncorrupted nature, even without the aid of grace, 
should feel, in so lively a manner, its dependance upon God, 
and its deep pollution! Indeed, we are constrained to adopt 
the words of the wise Messenger :* “Doyou ask if this sen¬ 
timent descended from remote antiquity? Or how this rever¬ 
ential fear of the unseen God, having once become current 
among men, could be propagated to the succeeding genera¬ 
tions? The answer is easy. Water descends with ease, and 
finds its own way; but, by tracing the stream upwards, we 
arrive at length at a point which is the highest, and there the 
water no longer descends, but gushes from the fountain. It 
is a more difficult question than many are wont to imagine, 
how the first sacrificer came by the idea of a sacrifice.”! 

* Claudius’ Werke iii. p. 65. [Matthias Claudius, who, from the 
titlepage of his miscellaneous writings ( Saemtliche Werke dcs Wands- 
becker Bolen,) was commonly known by the name of the Wandsbeck 
Messenger, was born in Holstein, in 1743, and died in 1815, and is 
numbered among the most original and ingenious writers of his day.J 

f Grotius—what a man by the side of many of our day!—is of the 
same opinion. De Veritat. Rel. Chr. i. }. 7. “Sunt vero instituta 
quaedam ita hominibus communia, ut non tam naturae instinctui, 
aut evidenti rationis collectioni, quam perpetuae traditioni accepts 
ferri debeant: qualis olim fuit viclimarum in sacris mactatis. 



The belief also in one only God, what a tone of genuine 
piety it produced ! This has not been hitherto sufficiently 
appreciated. The gods of the Greeks were exalted men, 
who, being unequal in might, were embroiled in mutual con¬ 
tentions. As he who knows no better protection and no 
surer defence, than the favour of a powerful party, never 
can attain to quietude and tranquillity; but, one while, full of 
anxiety, lest his party should be forced .to succumb ; at an¬ 
other, disquieted with solicitude, lest he should lose its fa¬ 
vour, must cherish in his bosom an everlasting conflict and 
dread; so aiso was it impossible that an unclouded spiritual 
life could dawn in the bosom of a serious-minded Greek. 
He could not say with the Psalmist: “ Truly my soul waiteth 
upon God.” An unceasing ebb and flow must have disquieted 
the fainting heart, when one deity was known to hurl defi¬ 
ance in the face of another: 

t . V 

eir’ £(xoi irri&u {isv 
Hvfog ufMp^xris /3og<r£u^o£, (5* 

{3go\)rfj, (ftpaxsXoj <r’ 

? Aygiuv avs/xuv" p^&ova sx nvSfxevuv 
AvraTg 7rvsu/xa xgudaivoi, 

Kv/xa 8 s ctovtou |o&/sj 

&vy%uffsisv’ <tgjv t’ ovgavluv 
’'Affrguv SioSovg, fg <rs xsXaivov 
Tugrueov a£<b]v 8s^a$ 

Toufjiov, dvuyxrjg tfrspgaTg Slvatg' 

IlavTws £[as y' ou 5ava<rwff£i.* 

« Let the sharp and jagged lightning be hurled against me; 
let the air be convulsed by the thunder and the rage of 
fierce winds; let the tempest upturn the earth from its low¬ 
est foundations, and confound, in its frightful whirl, the waves 
of the sea and the course of the stars; let him plunge me, 

* Aeschylus, Prometheus , vs. 1045. ed. Glasg. 



by the irresistible whirlwind, into gloomy Tartarus ; still, he 
cannot slay me.” Such was far from being the case with 
the Hebrew. He knew that his God was the God of heaven 
and earth, who gave to all nations their habitations, to whom 
“ every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall swear.”* The 
effects of this constant flowing forth of the heart toward the 
only living and the true God, are known to those who lead 
a spiritual life. What it means, to look away from man, and 
to look solely to God, was well understood by all the holy 
men of the Jewish and the Christian Church, by all the 
martyrs, and by Luther also, when he replied to the Prince 
Elector: “ You cannot protect me by your might, but / can 
protect you by my prayers.” 

Such then were the effects of the faith in the only 
true God, Still more beneficent was the faith in the only 
living God, as the Holy One who reigns above the powers 
of Nature. The deities of the Greeks were dependant pro¬ 
fessedly upon Nature. Of course, there was nothing in 
their system by which the soul of man might range beyond 
the limits of time. Nay, terrestrial things were even conse¬ 
crated in the eye of the Greek. It seemed therefore to him - 
temerity, to lift himself above them and see them beneath 
his feet. 

If we direct our attention to the political portion of the 
Law, we shall find that in this respect the institutions of Mo¬ 
ses will cope with those of any other nation. The natural 
sentiment of humanity and equity was laid at the foundation, 
and from this principle proceeded most of the commands. 
Witness the humanity and gentleness toward strangers, wi¬ 
dows, orphans, and even beasts. How tender is the prohi¬ 
bition (2 Mos. xxii. 21. xxiii. 9.): “ Thou shalt neither vex 
a stranger nor oppress him: for ye know the heart of a 
stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.” 
And again (3 Mos. xix. 34.): “ But the stranger that dwell* 

* Is. xlv. 23. 



w* • ■ 

eth with you, shall be unto you as one born among you, and 
thou shalt love him as thyself.” Witness also the numerous 
commands concerning widows and orphans, in substance as 
follows: Ye shall wrong neither the widow nor the or¬ 
phan : for they will cry unto me, and I will hear their 
cry, and my anger shall burn, so that you shall be slain 
ivith the sword, and your wives shall be made widows 
and you children orphans. Compare 2 Mos. xxii. 15., 3 
Mos. xix. 32., 5 Mos. xv. 7., 5 Mos. xxiv. 10., 5 Mos. xxiv. 
14. 17., and in relation to beasts, 2 Mos. xxiii. 11., 3 Mos. 
xxii. 24., 5 Mos. xxii. 1. And before all other commands, 
those which enjoin as follows : Thou shalt love God su¬ 
premely, and thy neighbour as thyself* 

This Law and this religious service, were, it is true, a mere 
vail. They became, about the time of our Saviour, more 
and more spiritless and nerveless. Then it was that the 
winged Psyche burst from its chrysalis state, and extended 
its wings toward heaven. Until this happened, holy men 
were sent continually, down to a very late period, who breath¬ 
ed forth the Spirit of the Almighty, and enlivened the age. 
We poor mortals are in a fallen state, and so long as we are 
not enlightened from above, have no scale by which to mea¬ 
sure what is Divine, when presented to us. Hence the con¬ 
tempt of the natural man for the Holy Scriptures. It is 
only after long wrestling and agonizing, that we come to par¬ 
ticipate in any illumination ; and as in divine matters every 
one knows only as far as his own experience extends, so we 
become acquainted with what is divine in the Scriptures, just 
in the proportion in which it begins to increase in ourselves. 
This is particularly true in the reading of the Prophets. 
Their words must appear dry and barren to every heathen, and 

* On this and other points discussed in this Essay, I would refer 
the reader to George Mueller’s Philosophische Aufsaetze—a book 
full of profound thoughts. 




we cannot be surprised to find him resorting, with a hun¬ 
dred-fold more gratification, to Homer and Anacreon. But 
when we receive the Spirit of God as our teacher, a new 
sense is generated ;—then we understand the prophecies, 
the miraculous annunciations, and the unfathomable depth 
of the spiritual meaning. More, however, of this below. 

If we wish to obtain a correct view of the Prophets, we 
must transport ourselves entirely into antiquity. Origen 
( Confr. Cels. i. 3G.) regards it as certain, that the heathen 
world had revelations of the future. That the Jews might 
not apostatize, it was necessary, says he, that they also should 
have their prophets ; and for these prophets they must have 
been indebted to God himself. From whatever source the 
pagan priests may have derived their knowledge of the fu¬ 
ture,* 1 the Jewish prophets had theirs undoubtedly from God. 

* For this field, the magnetical and somnarabulistical phenome 
na of our day, furnish entirely new results. It fares however with 
these inquiries, as with the philosophy of Kant. Stilling thought, 
that Providence had now laid open another door, by which mankind 
might enter heaven; inasmuch as philosophy herselfhad exposed 
her own weakness. How very few, however, is it probable, have thus 
arrived at the truth ! By the phenomena of magnetism, again, it was 
thought, that mankind must certainly be convinced of a God who 
reigns in and over Nature. In place of this, however, the advocates 
of pantheism undertake to prove, by means of magnetism, the iden¬ 
tity of the soul and the body, and make Jesus nothing but a magne- 
tiser. What shall we conclude from these things? That the Gospel 
will be its own witness. Still, however, the theologian can always 
employ those phenomena for the advantage of his department. Na¬ 
ture is in itself indifferent. But as soon as a moral beino- begins to 

o © 

stir up its powers with good or bad intention, the kindred good or 
bad spirits join themseives to him accordingly. Besides, the more 
uncorrupted,—the more consistent with nature a man is, in so much 
the closer relation does he stand to surrounding nature This re¬ 
mark serves to explain why it is that, in more ancient ages, univer¬ 
sally, operations upon nature were frequent. It will also be plain 
from this remark, that duo si idem faciunt non est idem. Moses could 
command nature; so could the Egyptian magicians also (if indeed 



Anciently mankind lived in a more immediate connexion 
with the world above, than they do at present. Hence the 
lively sentiment, that nothing could be done sine Numine . 
It is from this point of view that we must regard the prophets. 
They must in every thing stand between God and man, 
Inasmuch as the conducting of the affairs of the Hebrews 
exerted a peculiarly important influence upon their religion 
—for the doctrinal system of the Israelites was inscribed in 
large characters upon their providential leadings—prophecy 
also must, of necessity, have an immediate reference to this. 
So long as the will of God was thus communicated to the souls 
of his holy ones, the people continued in an intimate con¬ 
nexion with their God, The new-fashioned notions of those, 
therefore, are altogether erroneous, who can see in the pro¬ 
phets nothing but demagogues and poets. Isaiah can with 
as little truth be styled the minister of war , in the cabinet 
of Hezekiah, as Tiresias, the minister of religion, at the court 
of Oedipus ; or the Bramin Bidpai, Chancellor of state of 
the. wise Dabschelim of India, Still more strange does it 
sound, to hear some speak of court-prophets, as of court- 
comedians, With what propriety can those be denominated 
demagogues, who manifested their zeal toward the kingdom, 
because the worship of God was sinking or rising;—who 
threatened wars only as the punishment of ungodliness, who 
promised peace only as the reward of piety, who never 

they were not mere jugglers); to the former, therefore, every thing 
was possible; to the latter only much was possible. The principle 
of self is always corrupt; the principle of Ike subjection of self to 
God is always divine Again, nothing can be more absurd and un- 
histoncal than to refuse assent to all the accounts of oracular histo¬ 
ries. How very definite and express are many narratives from those 
ancient times. I would call the attention of the reader to some im? 
portant narratives of this kind drawn from the Arabian ante-Moham- 
medan antiquities. See, concerning the prophetess Dharifat al Chair, 
De Sacy, in the Memoires de l’ Acad, des Inscript ., xlviii. p. 492,- 
634, &c. 



sought their own interest, who foretold the future and still 
continued herdsmen (as in the case of Amos), and who, on 
account of their severe chastisement of apostacy, must have 
been in continual dread of being slain with the sword and of 
being sawn asunder? Who would venture to class such men 
as these, of whom the world was not worthy, with Cleon 
the leather maker ? And what kind of poetry do they think 
of, when they cite Jeremiah and Isaiah in the capacity of 
poets? The external form was nothing in their estimation. 
They could not therefore, out of regard to the form, be 
styled poets. The spirit, however, and the towering flight 
of the thoughts, certainly cannot be denominated merely 
poetry, provided we believe the Spirit of God to be actively 
operating upon the souls of the men, and see more in their 
books than the lofty aspirations of the human powers. If the 
Spirit of God announced what lay beyond the sphere of hu¬ 
man knowledge, then the words of the prophets were not 
merely external exhibitions of the movements of the soul 
within; they were the words of God , If not, how could 
the prophets complain of false prophets,—foretellers of the 
future, whom God had not commissioned? But even admit¬ 
ting they could have done this, under the influence of arro¬ 
gance and self-delusion, how can we account for the exist¬ 
ence of a fact such as we read of in Jer. xxviii.: “ And Ha- 
naniah spake in the presence of all the people, saying, Thus 
saith the Lord, Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchad¬ 
nezzar, king of Babylon, from the neck of all nations within 
the space of two full years.” Then said the prophet Jere¬ 
miah unto Hananiah the prophet, Hear now, Hananiah, The 
Lord hath not sent thee; but thou makest this people to 
trust in a lie. Therefore thus saith the Lord, Behold, I 
will cast thee from off the face of the earth : this year thou 
shalt die; because thou hast taught rebellion against the 
Lord. So the prophet Hananiah died the same year, in the 
seventh month.” Is it possible that Moses could have meant 



by a prophet, a poet and a well meaning demagogue, when 
he threatens, 5 Mos. xviii. 20.: “ But the prophet which 
shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not 
commanded him to speak * * * * * * even that prophet shall 
die.” And again, in vs, 21.: “If thou say in thine heart, 
How shall we know the word which the Lord hath not 
spoken ? When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, 
if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing 
which the Lord hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spo¬ 
ken it presumptuously; thou shalt not be afraid of him.” 

We now proceed to the third and most important point, 
viz. to show, 

III. The entire dependance of the New Testament 
upon the Old;—and that Christ is the sum and 
substance of the Old Testament: for, “Non sapit: 
vetus scriptura, si non Christus in ea intelligatur*— The 
Old Testament is savourless, if Christ be not tasted 
in it. ” 

This intimate connexion between the New and the Old 
Testament, may be viewed in a four-fold light. 

1. The principal features of the New Testament ethics 
are found also in the Old Testament, and seem to have ori¬ 
ginated there. 

2. The system of doctrines of the New Testament, is the 
development and illustration of the doctrine of faith, con¬ 
tained in the Old Testament. 

3. The prophecies of the Old Testament are fulfilled in 
the New. 

4. Christ is the centre of all prophecy. 

In regard to the ethics of the New Testament, we may 
remark that three things unite to constitute the harmony of 
the Christian life— humility, faith and love. Of all these, 
Ihe presentiment and elementary principle existed in the 

* Aug. Tr. 9. in Joh. 



Jewish religion, and of the first two, in the Jewish religion 
alone. We have seen that humility was the scope of the 
sacrificial system. The priesthood and the Law were or¬ 
dained for the purpose of awakening a sense of sin. Hence 
we find such frequent and striking allusions to humility in 
the Old Testament. “ The Lord is nigh unto them that are 
of a broken heart, and saveth such as be of a contrite spirit.”* 
He hath showed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth 
the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, 
and to walk humbly with thy God ?t “For thus saith the 
high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity; I dwell in the 
high and holy place, with him also that is of a contrite and 
humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to re¬ 
vive the heart of the contrite ones.”! “ For all these things 
hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith 
the Lord : but to this man will I look, even to him that 
is poor, and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.”|j 

It seems, then, that lowliness of mind, and a meek, hum- 
. ble, and broken spirit, which the heathen regarded as a blem¬ 
ish^ were regarded by the Hebrews as the proper tem¬ 
perament of the soul; and while the heathen extolled the 
“ elatio animif and the “ Svfos uyauos ” it is recognized 
as a prominent feature in the economy of the God of Israel, 
that, “ He resisteth the proud but giveth grace to the hum¬ 

If, in reference to this important point, we examine the 
views of the pagan nations of the East, we shall find, it is 
true, among them, something of a more elevated character, 
than among the Greeks. But, in their rage for speculation, 
they found themselves at length upon a giddy elevation. 
“Father, mother, property, passions, every wish, must be 
relinquished in order to arrive at that state of self-annihila- 

* Ps. xxxiv. 18. f Micah. vi. 8 J Is. Iviii. 15. 

|[ Is. Ixvi. 2. * Cic. de Off. iii. 32. 


tion in which we can contemplate the Deity :” says the In- 
dian-Chinese book Sucheulhchctngking * “ When the 

true light of God enters, then is the sense of self-annihilation 
so great, that knowledge also ceasesis the doctrine of 
the Nyaya sect.* Thus it appears that self-annihilation, for 
the sake of God, was a doctrine of the speculative East. 
This doctrine is unfruitful in the practical benefits of life. 
Still a deeper meaning lies in these doctrines than in those 
of the Grecian voluptuousness. 

Another Christian virtue, which is found in its elementary 
state in the Jewish religion, is Faith —a virtue utterly un¬ 
known to the pagan world. Faith, in the Christian sense, is 
“ a firm belief and clear anticipation of a more exalted stage 
of existence, into which we enter through a preparation of 
heart, although its nature cannot be fully comprehended by 
us. Inasmuch as we carry about with us, in the interior of 
our heart, the image and the seed of a more exalted exist¬ 
ence, as strangers and pilgrims in the world in which we 
live, we can, from this very circumstance, be satisfied within 
ourselves, of the reality of the light which beams to us from 
that higher stage of existence, and feel within ourselves the 
truth of the more exalted life which is destined for us. The 
Apostle John, therefore, declares, not merely emphatically 
or figuratively, but with a profound and direct meaning: o 
vriffrS’juv — b/Zi cuuwov.— p.S7a[3sf3'i}xsv sx too Savarov sis r rjv 

£wijv “ He that believeth—has life everlasting—has passed 
from death unto life.” The Saviour himself points out, 
most clearly, the profound meaning of this passage, when he 
says : TO ttdug o dwcfcj a utu, ysv^Csrai sv auTW tfriyri lidcwog ctXXopi- 
vou s}g£ur;v aiumv “ But the water that I will give him shall 
be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.”* 

* Mem. de l' Acad, xxxviii. p. 320. 

f Ayeen Akberi. ed. Gladwin, p. 397. 

f Neandcr’s Bernhard, p. 332. 



In this divinely profound sense of the word, the Hebrews 
tvere unacquainted with Faith. But the cordial, uncondition¬ 
al resignation to God, which appears in the lives of the pious 
Fathers of the Old Testament, was the most excellent pre¬ 
paration thereto. With what vigour did this spiritual life 
display itself, when Abraham, in obedience to the divine 
command, could resign his son—his only heir, the offspring 
of many prayers, in whom was the promise of the Seed. 
In the visions of the night, the well known voice was heard. 
In the morning he departs with two of his trusty servants. 
To no one, neither to the mother, nor to the son, nor to the 
servants, does he make known the conflict of faith. His 
lacerated heart betrays itself only in the memorable words: 
“My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt-offer¬ 
ing.” This is a faith—this is a submission, which might well 
exalt the patriarch to be the “ Father of the faithful.”* 

Thus does the idea of submission in faith run through all 
the books of the Old Covenant: nay, we might even tarry 
at the word Covenant, and contemplate in it the magnitude 
of the idea of faith. What a thought! God covenants with 
man! “A presumptuous idea, if our own invention, a lofty 
one, if revealed to us;” says George Mueller. It could hardly 
he otherwise than that men should walk in the strength of 
faith, although this in itself is so difficult. “ All the circum¬ 
stances in which we arc involved,” says Philo,t “ persuade 
us to confide in our might, our health, our strength, and our 
wisdom : to look away, therefore, from all these things, and 
to depend solely upon God, p.syaXrig xui oXu/aziou hiavoiag 2<fvt 
is an indication of a great and heavenly mind.” 

But how is it with regard to Love, the remaining Chris¬ 
tian virtue ? Can we discover the elements of this virtue also 

* Compare what a profound thinker, Baumgartcn-Crusius, in his 
Kinleitung in die Dogmulik. p. 67. says on the subject of Faith. 

f Ouis rerum divinarum hucres, ed. Pfeiffer iv. p. 43. 



in the Jewish religion? Undoubtedly we can. The Lord 
God thus commands the Israelites (5 Mos. vi. 5.): “ And 
thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and 
with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” And what does 
he promise—he who thus commands the love of his people 
—in order to show himself worthy of their love ? “For the 
mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed ; but my 
kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the cove¬ 
nant of my peace be removed, saith the Lord that hath mer¬ 
cy on thee” (Is. liv. 10.). And again : “ But Zion said, The 
Lord hath forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me. 
Can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not 
have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, they may 
forget, yet will I not forget thee” (Is. xliv. 14, 15.). 

This is indeed the language of love, and a language which 
might well stir up the hearts of the Israelites to fulfil, on their 
part, the command of love. And if, after so many affecting 
exhibitions of love, the lightnings of wrath are seen to play, 
still the heart was already resolved and the soul warmed. 
And this must have been the effect also of the bare conside¬ 
ration of the providential leadings with which the people 
were favoured, whom the Holy One had chosen for his pe¬ 
culiar possession. These guidances induced a hearty con¬ 
fidence ; and no such confidence" can exist without love. 

Here we are met by the old objection : “ The God of Israel 
w r as a. jealous, angry, wrathful God.” But the expression 
—a jealous God, denotes, not a wrathful, angry 
God, but a God who suffers not his rights to be invaded, and 
exercises a tender vigilance over the object of his affection. 
In this sense it becomes a precious epithet. Besides this, 
the reply of Origen may be adduced, in answer to the objec¬ 
tion : “ The sinner is not merely to be treated with clemen¬ 
cy ; his fears also must be appealed to.” Even now, after 
the message of love is come to us in the Gospel, we may still 
peruse those startling passages, and acknowledge with hu- 



utility that they conduce to our edification and safety, in the 
midst of our constantly recurring infirmities. Besides, this 
jealous God addressed his chosen ones in quite a different 
tone from that in which he speaks to the rebellious people.* 
When the Lord passed by before Elijah, it is said (1 Kings xix. 
11, 12, 13.): “And a great and strong wind rent the moun¬ 
tains, and brake in pieces the rocks, before the Lord ; but the 
Lord was not in the wind : and after the wind an earthquake ; 
but the Lord was not in the earthquake: and after the earth¬ 
quake a fire ; but the Lord was not in the fire : and after the 
fire a still small voice. And it was so, when Elijah heard it, 
that he wrapped his face in his mantle and went out, &c.” 

Such then is the love of God towards men, and such the 
love of men towards God. In regard to the love of men for 
their fellow-men, how can it be expressed in more direct 
terms than in the command : “ Thou shalt love thy neighbour 
as thyself.” Here the idea of love is sufficiently elevated. 
That some degenerate minds, at a later period, lowered and 
contracted this precious command, cannot hurt the command 

Thus we see, even in Moses and the Prophets, the embryos 
of the celestial and harmonious Christian virtues ; and as soon 
as humility and love burst forth into full and vigorous life, 
we find lowly and affectionate hearts, as that of an Anna, an 
Elizabeth, a Mary, a Simon, and a Joseph, ready to welcome 

And if the moral elements of the Christian life can be found 
in the Jewish religion, the same may be said of the doctrines 
of Christianity. A two-fold view, however, may be taken of 

* It is well remarked by Procopius (on Sam- i. 21.): ^nabjfxaivso'- 
Sa» (isf ug o! smrfr/jiAovss rov tfgorsgov Xaou v^-rov icpgovi?ov <ruv Cwp.ccn- 
xwv <rou vofAcrj tfa^ayysAfAaTwv. To which we may add, that all were 
required to sacrifice in the Temple. Elias, however, sacrifices upon 
Carmel, and Samuel in Mizpeh. 



this matter. All theologians are ready to acknowledge the 
intimate connexion between the doctrines of the Old and 
those of the New Testament. Some of them, however, affect 
to show how, in the natural progress of human things, the 
Gospel might grow out of the religion of the Hebrews; while 
others, admitting an unremitting providential guidance of the 
children of Israel, endeavour to prove that the “ Ancient of 
days” designed gradually to prepare all hearts and minds for 
the coming of the Saviour of the world. Adopting a process 
of inductive reasoning, we may arrive at the truth by showing 
that the Hebrew nation is an inexplicable riddle to the mere 
historian; that their sentiments are a wonder, their law a 
wonder, their leadings a wonder; and then, from the cir¬ 
cumstances and condition of the world, and of the Hebrew 
nation at the time of Christ, as well as from the history of 
our Lord, we may conclude, with the utmost confidence, that 
Christianity never could, in the natural course of things, have 
grown out of the Jewish religion. Still this mode of reason¬ 
ing may not prove so convincing, as to enter into the doctrine 
of redemption, and to become acquainted with the pow T er of 
the Holy Spirit, and then, on the authority of Christ, to look 
for more in the religion of the Jews, than at first sight pre¬ 
sents itself; and to admit no natural development without the 
special superintendence of God. He who pursues this course— 
who suffers himself to he born again of the Holy Ghost—is 
liberated from all doubts; for it is not, properly speaking, 
the understanding that doubts, hut the will. 

Which now are the doctrines of the New Testament that 
are exhibited to us in the Old? In our opinion,all are found 
in the Old Testament, more or less clearly delineated. The 
proofs of this we cannot introduce here in detail, nor is it 
necessary. We confine ourselves to a remark on the his¬ 
tory of the Old Testament doctrines. 

It cannot he denied that many doctrines made their ap¬ 
pearance, for the first time, after the lapse of many ages— 



for example, after the captivity. Are these doctrines—the 
doctrines, to wit, of Immortality, of a Resurrection, of a 
Universal Judgment, of Demons,—all of foreign origin? 
And if so, are they therefore false and fabulous? Unfortu¬ 
nately the testimony out of those times is so deficient, that, 
without being able to adduce any thing satisfactory, we are 
driven to hypothesis. Resting on the authority of Christy 
and listening to the words of Cicero and of Augustine : “ nul¬ 
la falsa doctrina est quae non aliquid veri permisceat,” we 
may admit that in every ancient religion, there were some 
divine elements. This is particularly true of the religion of 
the Parsees. He has not left himself without a witness in 
anv nation. 

Now we find, on the other hand, allusions to various doc¬ 
trines, in the books of the Old Testament; for example, to 
the doctrine of Immortality, in the translation of Enoch and 
Elijah*,* to the Resurrection, in Ps. xvii. 15;t and to the 
Universal Judgment, in the innumerable passages where the 
expression occurs DV “ the great and terrible day 

of the Lord;” and finally, to the doctrine of Evil Spirits 
in Gen. iii. where the serpent as certainly denotes the “ father 
of lies,” as in the Zend-avesta, it denotes Ahriman ; and in 
Mos. xvi. 8. 10. 26., where Gesenius also adopts the mean¬ 
ing, evil spirit.\ Hence we are constrained to believe (as 
De Wette, on Ps. cciv., supposes, and as Drusius before him 

* Compare 1 Kings xix. 4. where Elijah exclaims; “Now, O 
Lord, take away my life”—in which expression a peaceful and happy 
removal is intended, a violent one is denoted by another word 

f See De Wette on this passage: ‘ If our view of the passage be 
correct, we have found here, in this psalm, the hope of immortality.” 

f The Jews have also recognized an evil spirit— Asasel: see Ei- 
senmenger Entdecktes Judenlhum I. p. 823. 825. The Christians of 
St. John also have an evil spirit of this name. Vid. Onomasticon ad 
Libr. Adami. p. 31. 




had attempted to prove,) that the Hebrews also had a kind 
of secret doctrine, which was handed down traditionally 
among the better informed and wiser sort, and faintly glim¬ 
mers, now and then, through their common didactic writings. 
In support of this opinion, we might also adduce the univer¬ 
sal admission among the Jews of a HiD nilil-an 

oral law; at least we may conclude, from this universal 
admission, that the opinion is not entirely without founda¬ 
tion. If this supposition then be well founded, the circum¬ 
stances of declining Judaism and those of declining pagan¬ 
ism, are very similar. Creutzer has shown that the heathen, 
as soon as Christianity threatened to subvert their entire sys¬ 
tem, brought to view whatever in their mysteries bore a resem¬ 
blance to the Christian doctrines,* and here and there accom¬ 
modated it perhaps to the Christian system. In the same 
manner, as it seems, the Jewish religion came, in the dispen¬ 
sations of Providence, into such close contact with the Per¬ 
sian doctrines, that the instructions which had long been be¬ 
queathed from one to another in cautious secrecy, at length 
were published, were illustrated and perfected by their close 
connexion with the Persian doctrines, and thus served to lay 
the foundation for the new order of things which Christ intro¬ 
duced.! This appears to us to have been the true origin of 
these doctrines. Providence designed that they should be 
disseminated, just before the advent of Christ, in order that 

* Compare what Mosheim says in his treatise: “Z)e turbala 
per Platonicos Ecclesia ,” t. xxv. and Hebenstreit: “ De Jamblichi doc- 
trina, chrislianae religioni, quam imitari studet, noxia. 

f How little ground we have to reject all the doctrines of the ex- 
tra-Jewish world, is manifest from the fact that so much in the Mo¬ 
saic ritual was of Egyptian origin, and was consecrated only by its 
reception into the Jewish religious service. It is universally the case 
that where things divine have gained the ascendancy of things pro¬ 
fane, the previous form of the profane is not obliterated, but is ren¬ 
dered sacred. 




he who was merely to bring the new Spirit, and, by means of 
this, to destroy the veil of the law, and to illustrate these doc¬ 
trines, need furnish no system of doctrines, but merely an¬ 
nounce, by his precepts and his life, the one great doctrine: 
“ God hath so loved the world Those post-Babylonian 
doctrines were illustrated, however, by the instructions of 
Jesus and the Apostles to such a degree, that they appear in 
an entirely new and spiritual light,* as the pure and disem¬ 
bodied spirit, escaped from the lifeless body of the Rabbinical 

Let us turn now to the third connecting link between the 
Old and the New Testament, viz. the Prophecies. And 
here we may distinguish between such as relate in general 
to the times of Christianity—the kingdom of Heaven upon 
the earth ; and such as treat merely of the person of the Sa¬ 
viour. If any portion of the Scriptures has suffered from a 
loose treatment, it is the prophetical portion of the Old Tes¬ 
tament. Without considering that the New Testament was 
composed by the disciples of our Lord, within the space of a 
few years, whilst the Old Testament was written, during the 
space of eleven centuries, by priests, kings, neatherds, and 
legislators—all, however, impelled by one and the same 
spirit;—without considering this, the exposition of the Old 
Testament was conducted like that of the New, as if all its 
books had been the production of one and the same age. But 
we who stand, as it were, upon the summit of almost six thou¬ 
sand years, must survey, w r ith an eye that takes in the whole 
extent of universal history, the ages that are past, in order 
rightly to understand the plan of the “ Ancient of Days,” 

* Compare, for example, what Sueskind ( Magazin , x. p. 92.) says 
on the notions which the Jews entertained concerning the Messiah, 
as about to awaken the sleeping dead, and to judge the world; and 
concerning his kingdom at the end of the world. This learned and 
faithful theologian exposes the wide difference between the Rabbini¬ 
cal and the Christian exhibition of the doctrine. 



even in the history of the Jewish people. He, however, 
“who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, 
and meted out heaven with the span,” has also set bounds 
to the times of knowledge; and if thousands on thousands 
of years must roll away, ere the bucket be lilted, drop by- 
drop, still we must believe that “with him a thousand years 
are as one day,” and exclaim with the prophet: “ Who hath 
taught him knowledge and showed to him the way of under' 
standing ?” 

Thus we tind that the idea of a Kingdom of God, of a Day 
of Judgment, and of a Spiritual King of Israel, unfolded it¬ 
self gradually among the people of God. It is not our design 
here to run into detail, but to present only the prominent 
ideas. There are implanted in the human soul certain semi- 
na eternitatis—seeds of eternity , as Jos. Scaliger styles 
them ; that is,certain enlivening conceptions,which a rational 
faith embraces and clings to in the ceaseless whirl of temporal 
affairs. Such sentiments were prevalent among the heathen 
of more ancient times, and are still prevalent among many 
of the heathen without the limits of Europe. In Europe, 
however, many considered themselves too wise to retain and 
acknowledge such sentiments. Would that the words of the 
late genuine philosopher* were taken to heart and their truth 
felt. “ The conviction is indeed spreading abroad, how very 
slender is the foundation upon which rests that vaunted qua¬ 
lity, denominated of late years, strength of mind ; and that 
it demands a much greater strength of mind , to believe, 
without cavilling and without the mania for explanation, the 
mysteries of Religion, than to reject, as insipid and weak, 
every thing which will not forthwith harmonize with the 
most common rules of reason and philosophy.” 

As examples of such “ seeds of eternity,” we may mention 

* Solgcr’s Philosoplusche Gespraechc —a book fraught with profound, 
valuable and correct views. See pp. 191. 195. 216, 217. 240. 



the notions of God, of Liberty, and of Immortality, compre¬ 
hended and held by the sound mind, through the instru¬ 
mentality of a faith which transcends all knowledge,—which 
observes rather than demonstrates, and justifies rather 
than construes .* Upon the same foundation rests also 
the notion of a primeval happy condition of man, of an inti¬ 
mate connexion between the spiritual and the material world, 
of a revelation from God, of a Saviour of the world, and of 
a blissful eternity. Among all the nations of the earth, the 
feeling of these truths displayed itself, and continues to 
display itself, in various ways. Among the Jews, however, 
this seed grew gradually till it became “ a tree, so that the 
birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.” 
Two stars were seen by their wise men to twinkle in the 
dubious twilight—a period of terrestrial felicity, and a Re¬ 
deemer. As the time approached, however, when both 
should appear, these stars shed continually a brighter and 
more certain light. 

True, the hope of a Redeemer was cherished in other na¬ 
tions also, under a variety of forms. The Chinese, the Thi¬ 
betans, the Indians, the Persians, and the Greeks, possess 
their traditions concerning the golden age and its return. 

* It promises to be an advantage to many young and inexperienced 
minds, that the spiritless abstraction of the philosophy of our day, 
is carried so far and with such consistent conclusiveness, as to render 
it manifest, that the end of all such speculation can only be a com¬ 
fortless material or ideal Pantheism, which robs us of God, of Liberty, 
and of Immortality.* If, however, philosophy would leave its regions 
of speculation, and consider attentively, and with the caution which 
becomes it, the everlasting wants of man, which can never be de¬ 
nied, it would then be content to see Christianity entirely founded upon 
these wants. Then, with Koeppen ( Philos . des Christ, i. p. 30.), it 
might [prove even the doctrine of Original Sin,—the fundamental 
doctrine of a living Faith. 

* For an impersonal God is no God, an ideal Liberty, n» Liberty, and an ideal Im¬ 
mortality, no Immortality. 

3 G 



Among the Indians, we find Chrishna, among the Persian^ 
Oschanderbami, among the Irish, the hero Thor, as the 
personage who is to effect the deliverance. But fable glim¬ 
mers with a doubtful and changeable light. Among the 
Jews, on the contrary, the Messiah is the fixed and the bright 
centre of all hope. At every period, they believed him near 
at hand, as the Apostles did in regard to the Day of the Lord 
—the second appearance of the Messiah. I do not say, in¬ 
deed, that in Gen. iv. 1. Eve supposed already that the Mes¬ 
siah was to come from her womb. Passing by other argu¬ 
ments which might be mentioned, the Fathers of the Church 
discover in this passage no prophecy. But Jacob, beyond 
a doubt, believed his appearance near at hand. So also did 
David. It cannot, therefore, with any justice, be urged as 
an objection to the ninth chapter of Isaiah, that the prophet 
mentions, as a sign of a thing at hand, an event which was 
shrouded in the darkness of distant futurity; for by the Is¬ 
raelites it was regarded as most certain, that the Redeemer 
would come, and whilst the prophet recalls to their recol¬ 
lection this most certain fact of redemption, and enlarges 
upon it, and confirms it, the promise which lay nearer at 
hand becomes more certain and established. Nay, the no ¬ 
tion of a Messiah was so very prominent in all the imagina¬ 
tions and conceptions of the Hebrews, that in the eleventh 
chapter the prophet recurs to it again, inasmuch as this per¬ 
sonage who was to come, was to satisfy every want, to 
procure peace upon earth, and to re-establish righteousness, 
holiness, government, religion and law. Beyond all contro¬ 
versy, in the promise of the Seed, in Gen. iii., which should 
bruise the head of the serpent, fhe Messiah is meant. This 
the Christian asserts as confidently, as the Indian does that 
the serpent, whose head is bruised by Chrishna, is the evil 
spirit;* or as the pagan Icelander does that the dragon,. 

* Maurice’s History of Ilindostan ii. p. 290; 



whose head is bruised by Thor, is the Devil.* This precious 
promise descended, in early times, from generation to gene¬ 
ration, until He came “ who should come.” According to 
the doctrine of Zoroaster, in the last days of the world the 
holy man Oschanderbami (Oschanderbegha), will come to 
contend with the evil spirit, for the space of twenty years. 
He will at length obtain the victory, justice will return, kings 
will render him homage, and peace will dwell upon the 
earth, t 

This glorious hope beams forth again for the first time in 
1 Mos. xlix. 10,1 in the words of the dying patriarch, inspir¬ 
ed by the breath of the Eternal. Whether the Messiah is in¬ 
tended in 5 Mos. xviii., admits of doubt. In the Psalms of 
David, the light of hope again shines with indubitable clear¬ 
ness. The Second, and the Hundred and Tenth Psalm, can 
be explained, by a sound exegesis, only of the Messiah.§ 

* Edda, Fab. ii. 25. 27. 

I Hyd e De Religione Perss. veterum , ch. 31. Comp. Zend-avesta ii. 
p. 375. 

J We particularly recommend to the reader to compare what Jalm 
has said, in his Einleitung ins Alte Testament. Vienna, 1802 p. 507. 
In the seventh or eighth century, appeared, for the first time, the 
reading rtw. As late as the tenth century, the Egyptian Jew 
Saadias translated it —He whose it is. Gesenius, also, by the Shiloh, 
understands the Messiah 

[As a compound, the word is composed of W, equivalent 

to and |“j^, the same as to him. The expression “ Until 

Shiloh come” would then denote: Until becomes ichose it (the sceptre) 
is. It may gratify some of our readers to see the different transla¬ 
tions of this word, adopted by the ancient versions. From the Hex- 
apla of Origen and the Polyglot of Walton, we extract the following. 
cj <i'icCxsiTui—f jr whom it is reserved: Aquila and Symmachus. vot 
affoxspasva aara —the things reserved for him: Septuagmt. Qui mit- 
tejulus est—who is to be sent: Vulgate. — Messiah: Tar- 

t • : 

gum of Onkelos. Pacificus—the peaceful: Samaritan version. Is cu,- 
jus illud est—He whose it is: Syriac version.]— (Tr.) 

!> See Dathe Kuinoel. Messian. Weissag. 



So far we recognise in the expected Messiah a King •, or 
rather, a royal Priest. His Kingdom, however, is not yet 
described. A picture of it is first presented in the Prophets. 
Almost all of them beheld, with a prophetic eye, Him who 
was to come ; but, as the sun breaks through the cloud and 
spreads around it a thousand different hues, so the light of 
this celestial hope, puts on its various colours according to 
the mind from which it is reflected. Most of the Seers re¬ 
present him as a royal priest. Isaiah, with a more definite 
perception, recognises him as God, styles him the “ Ev¬ 
erlasting Father, ” and designates even the place of hia 
appearance, in the passage (Is. ix. 1.) unhappily mistranslated 
by Luther: “ It shall not, however, (always) be dark where 
(now) is distress. Formerly he (Jehovah) afflicted the land 
of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali ; but then he will hon¬ 
our the land by the wav of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Gali¬ 
lee, of the nations. The people that walk in darkness be¬ 
hold a great light.”* 

Another interval succeeds, and another prophet beholds 
this same Deliverer, and delineates even his sufferings (Is. lii.). 
Malachi also, who closes the series of the divinely commis¬ 
sioned prophets, beheld Him who was to come, as “the 
Messenger of the Covenant of the Lord,” who should “sud¬ 
denly come to his Temple.”! This “Messenger of the Cove¬ 
nant,” however, is the very same personage that conducted 
the Israelites in all their journeyings, that is, the “Teacher 
come from God” for ever and ever.| 

Here closes the Old Testament. A silence succeeds for 
the space of nearly four hundred years. During this inter- 

* From Gesenius’ German Translation.—(T r.) 

f Ch. ii. 1. 

J The rfirP —Angel of the Lord, is Jehovah in 1 Mos. 

xix. 24.: “ The Lord rained ****** fi re from the Lord out of 
heaven.” Compare 1 Mos. xxii. 11. and following. 



val, every thing was ripening for the expected time when the 
foundations of the earth should be shaken. During this in- 
terval, was developed the doctrine of the Logos, and of 
JV sdom; and the Angel of the Covenant assumed the more 
glorious character of Wisdom and the Word of (>od, under 
which the Saviour of the world is introduced to us bv the 
Evangelist John. The years which intervene from Malachi 
until the Baptist, constitute a period of vast importance and 
significancy. The semina cieterna which enlivened the re¬ 
ligions of all the Asiatic nations, were brought toward wes¬ 
tern Asia. All that was valuable in these, and all that was 
adapted to instruct and enlighten the world, was concentred 
in Judea, for the purpose of weaving into the texture of the 
Jewish doctrines, whatever, from this source, might be use¬ 
ful for all ages. How could John have delineated, in such 
worthy language, the dignity of his Master, unless, by the 
dispensations of Providence, the idea of the Logos had be¬ 
come universally familiar ?* 

* If the wise providence of God is manifest in bringing the West 
and the East into contact in Alexandria, why is it not equally so in 
the communication of ideas which flowed into the West, from the 
very ancient and venerable traditions of the East? Compare the fol¬ 
lowing admirable passage from the Letters of John v. Mueller xiv. p. 
299. : “ Tu me demanderaspar quel moyenje me sms convawcu de 1' 
divine de celui, qui est venu annoncer au monde Vimmortalite: je nc parlerai 
point du sentiment inlerieur de la verite, qui pour mon cceur est une preuve 
suffisante ; mats je te demanderois , si tu n’avois jamais vu le soleil , et si ton 
(til suivoit un beau jour tons les rayons , qui en divergent, pour eclairer 
Vunivers , s'il les suivoit jusqu'd leur origine , s'il trouvoit le point, duquel ils 
sortent tous, ne croirois tu pas que ce centre , est le soleil? Or, cela nVarrive: 
plus j'etudie Vhistoire et mieux je vois que les plus grands evenements de 
Vanliquile alloient tous , par un merveilleux enchainemenl au but, que le 
maitre de Vunivers s'etoil propost, de fairt paroitre le Christ avec celle doc¬ 
trine dans le terns le plus propre d lui faire prendre racine .’’’’—“ You will 
ask, by what means I am convinced of the divine origin of Him who 
came to announce Immortality to the world. I shall say nothing of 
the inward feeling of the truth, which for me is a sufficient testimony; 



Side by side with the doctrine of the Messiah, in the pro* 
phets, we find the anticipation of his kingdom. This sub¬ 
ject deserves a full and particular consideration. We are con¬ 
strained, however, to restrict ourselves in its discussion to 
one view of it. Accordingly, we shall merely show the fluc¬ 
tuations of the ideas of the prophets on this subject,—some¬ 
times rising to a glorious elevation, and sometimes remaining 
at a lower point. The humblest conception is that of a 
kingdom, in which Israel shall enjoy perfect tranquillity from 
without, shall be served by their enemies as by slaves, shall 
quietly devote themselves to God, and shall experience un¬ 
exampled prosperity under a Governor of the race of David.* 
Connected with this view is the idea also of extraordinary 
righteousness and holiness, which every individual will exhi¬ 
bit. “ But ye shall be named the Priests of the Lord; men 
shall call you the Ministers of our God. ? * * * * For as the 
earth bringcth forth her bud, and as the garden causes the 
things that are sown in it to spring forth; so the Lord God 
will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all 
the nations.”t “ In that day there shall be a fountain open¬ 
ed to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, 
for sin and for uncleanness.”| The Redeemer will come in 
behalf of the penitent and take away every sin. “ And the 
Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from 

but I would ask you whether, if you had never beheld the sun, and 
on a clear transparent day, your eye should follow all the rays which 
pour from it to illuminate the system, up to their source, until it 
reached the point whence all diverged, you would not conclude that 
this centre is the sun? Now this is just my case^: the more I study 
history, the more clearly I see how the most important events 
of antiquity were directed, by means of a wonderful concatenation, 
to the great end which the Lord of the universe had in view,—to 
bring about the appearance of the Messiah with this doctrine, at the 
very time when it was most likely to take root.” 

* Compare Luke i. 74. j- Is. lxi. 6. 11. J Zacli. xiii. 1. 



transgression in Jacob, sailh the Lord.’ 1 * u I have blotted 
out, as a thick cloud , thy transgressions, and , as a 
cloud, thy sms : return unto me, for I have redeemed 
thee.” f Blended with this glorious picture of the holiness 
and righteousness of Israel, is the expectation of the salvation 
which is prepared for the heathen nations also. In this well 
defined hope, that the whole heathen world will become ac¬ 
quainted with Israel’s God, the divine character of the pro¬ 
phecy displays itself with striking clearness. “ Ho every 
one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath 
no money ; come ye, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and 
milk without money, and without price.”! “ Then thou 
shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and 
be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be con¬ 
verted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto 
thee.Ӥ The prophecy mounts still higher in another place,|| 
where Judaism is described as almost obliterated; for the 
prophet announces that the Lord would take of the hea¬ 
then for priests and for Leviles, and that missionaries 
from among the Jews should go forth into all lands to 
preach the Lord to the heathen. Well then might the 
prophet foretell that the earth should “ be full of the know¬ 
ledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea,”1F and “the 
Lord shall be king over all the earth : in that day shall there 
be one Lord, and his name One.”** 

It is beyond our present faculties to determine a priori 
the divine dispensations. We must deduce, from facts and 
revelations, our knowledge of the laws of God. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that the annunciation of the coming 
Salvation, was made in such a variety of ways, and in so ge¬ 
neral a manner. We remark, by the way, that whenever a 

divine revelation is blended with the affairs of time, it is 

* Is. lix. 20. f Is. xliv. 22. J Is. Iv. 1 . } Is. lx. 5. 

j[ Is. lxvi. 19. anil following. IT Is. xi. 9. ** Zach. xiv. 9. 



more intimately connected with them, than the human un¬ 
derstanding, reasoning a priori , would have been led to ex-* 
pect.* Hence it happens, that the expectation of the king- 

* The ancients, both Christians and pagans, have constantly alluded 
to the deficiency of all human modes of representing divine things, 
and of accommodating the ways of God to human comprehension. 
What golden words are those of Gregory Nanzitmzen ( Opp. ed Pru- 
naeus, i- p. 545. in the Thirty-Fourth discourse) : t( utiirsg dSuvarov 
CnegSrivtti rijv lecurs dxtdv, xai <fi i Xi'av iveiyopevip ((pSrctvsi ydg del 
rodirov offou xaraXapfSdvsrai), rj ro~g ogaroTg ir'hridtudai rrp o-^iv 8 'ryn 
<rS sv psdcj (pur 05 xui de'gos, y ruv v8druv sfw rr,v vrjxrriv (pud iv ^loXirf- 
Salvsiv Srug «p//j^avov rot's sv dufxan, Si%a ruv dupanx&v Ka,vrr\ ys- 
vsd^sa 1 psrd ruv voxpsvuv.”—Jls it is impossible to overtake one's own sha¬ 
dow , how great soever our haste (for it always advances with as much rapi¬ 
dity as we employ in the pursuit) ; or to fix the eye upon visible objects, with¬ 
out an intervening medium of light and air; or to swim without water ; so 
impossible is it also , for those who are yet in the body , dismissing corporeal 
things, to be altogether engrossed with those which are spiritual. Origen 
also {Opp. ed Wirceb. xii. p. 316., in the Eighth Discourse on Luke), 
maintains that our conceptions of divine things will be the more glo¬ 
rious, just in proportion to our spiritual ennoblement: “ Unusquisque 
nostrum ad imaginem Christi forinans animam suatn, aut majorem ei, 
aut minorem ponit imaginem, vel obsoletam vel sordidam, aut claram 
atque lucentem et splendentem, ad effigiem imaginis principalis. 
Quando igitur grandem fecero imaginem imaginis , id est , animam meant , 
ei cum opere, agitations, sernvme.junc imago Deigrandis 
ejficitur ”—This the correct idea of the nature of the prophetical vi¬ 
sion. The same sentiment is expressed by Plutarch, in one of the 
most elegant and profound passages of his work De Pylhiae Oraculis 
(Opp. Jlor. ed. Wyttenb. ii. De P. Or. ch. xxi.) : “As the body 
makes use of various members as instruments, so the soul makes use 
of the body and its members as instruments. The soul however is 
an instrument of God. Now it belongs to the instrument, to answer, 
as far as possible, the design of the user. It cannot however do this 
fully; and the nature of the user is tarnished by the nature of the in¬ 
strument. One and the same object, when seen in concave and convex 
mirrors, appears of a thousand different, forms. The light of the sun 
is deteriorated in the moon—its colour and splendour are changed, 
and its warmth is gone. But it is the same sun-light still. In the 
same manner as the moon reflects the light of the sun, does the soul 



dom of God, unfolds itself in forms so diversified among the 
Hebrews. This also may serve to explain, why the univer¬ 
sal conversion to the Saviour Jesus Christ, appears only as a 
turning to the God of Israel, and to the Holy Place at Jeru¬ 
salem. But when the times were accomplished, then the 
design and meaning of the Spirit of God was clearly un¬ 

How shall we account for the fact, that whenever the 
Judgment is spoken of—the KTiJ OP— the terrible day of 
the Lord , it is ordinarily accompanied with the annuncia¬ 
tion of the salvation which is to come through the Messiah ? 
The thought readily suggests itself, that the good never 
makes its appearance, without a lively conflict with the evil ; 
and thus we might naturally explain this union and connex¬ 
ion. But the Lord himself unfolds to us its meaning. - Even 
the Baptist, who saw the “ Lamb of God that taketh away 
the sins of the world,” saw also, at the same time, the fan 
in his hand and the axe laid at the root of the trees .— 
The disciples expected forthwith “ the Day of Vengeance,” 
“ the Woes of Time.” And what does Jesus do 1 He inter¬ 
poses centuries between his appearance and those woes— 
he distinguishes a tivofold appearance of the Messiah. In¬ 
structed by these facts, we can readily see how ages crowded 
upon ages, in the perspective, to the minds of the prophets 
who looked downward through futurity ; and how the ap¬ 
pearance of the terrestrial kingdom was identified, in their 
minds, with that of the eternal kingdom of God. Now, 
however, the kingdom of heaven upon the earth, and that 
above, is one and the same ; for, as soon as we become sub¬ 
jects of the dispensation of Grace by Jesus Christ, we are 
citizens of the everlasting roXirsla. We feel the influences 

reflect the ideas of God which have beamed upon it from above 
they are darkened and clouded by the mortal body, and the unceas¬ 
ingly active soul, which is unable, without a motion of its own, to 
give itself away to Him that moves it.” 

3 H 



which sircam from above, and our home is in heaven. Hence 
(.he Saviour speaks of the kingdom of heaven, at one time as 
having already appeared, and at another as yet to come. If we 
assume this point of view, the eight significations of the word 
((3affiXsla) which Schleusner gives,* will flow together into 
one —into one, however, which is peculiar and everlasting. 

Although all these glorious views might be still farther 
developed, we shall close with a few words about the typi¬ 
cal and symbolical meaning of the History and Ritual of the 
Israelites. He who cannot approach this subject with an ac¬ 
curate accjuaintance with the East, had better withhold his 
judgment. In the East every thing is symbolical. Greece 
also, in its earliest days, breathed the Oriental spirit, and 
this symbolical character pervaded also the mysteries with 
their ceremonies. It is perfectly natural,, then, that in the 
erection of the Tabernacle and of the Temple, every thing 
should have a secret meaning. The Oriental is fond of im¬ 
mediate and intuitive modes of instruction. Coldly imagi¬ 
native, and asserting only one kind of mental activity, viz. 
reflection, every species of discursive instruction is offensive 
to him. As Nature, unfolding its productions in the East 
without uniform regularity, constantly sprouts and grows, so 
it is with the Oriental in his mode of instruction. He pre¬ 
sents the full and entire flower, crowded with an endless 
variety of materials; to this he adds another and another, 
without dismembering the rich ccilix, leaf by leaf. Accord¬ 
ingly, speculation with him becomes poetry ; history, fable; 
and religion, symbolical. The notion is therefore incorrect, 
both of those who suppose that none of the Jewish ceremo¬ 
nial law r s have any ulterior object in view, and of those who 
acknowledge a remote meaning only in the principal cere¬ 
monial regulations, t 

* Some valuable thoughts on this subject may be found in the short 
Essay entitled, Jlphorismen ueber den Zvsambienh. dcs A. T. and des 
JY. T. by Allioli. Regensb. 1818 . 

f Those of the former class among the Jews are opposed by Mai- 



In the same manner we may find much that is symbolical 
among the Indians, the Chinese, the Persians, the Egyptians, 
and the Greeks. The Jewish system, however, is distin¬ 
guished from every other, by this particular, that in their 
symbols are unconscious but definite allusions to the future. 
Their symbols, therefore, not only point to the past, but pre¬ 
figure the future. As the older theologians were very ex¬ 
travagant on this point ,* it becomes us to obtain such a set¬ 
tled and liberal view of the types of the Old Testament, as 
shall not be shaken by those who are to come after us. This 
may be effected by distinguishing accurately between the 
ideal and the actual ', the known and the unknown. What 
l mean is this. We must inquire whether the fact in itself 
was to excite in the minds of the Hebrews, the expectation, 
that at some future day a similar fact would unfold itself in 
the Messiah; or whether they were to be familiarized mere¬ 
ly with the ideas naturally suggested by means of facts, as 
in the case of the erection of the serpent in the wilderness, 
and by means of ordinances, as in the case of the various of¬ 
ferings for sin. The latter seems to be the truth, for we 
nowhere find reason to believe, that Moses or his people had 
the most definite and circumstantial conceptions of the com¬ 
ing Messiah. In this case, we cannot regard the types as 
known to them to be such ; and their advantage will be con¬ 
fined to this circumstance, that certain notions, otherwise not 

monides, in his More Nevochim, ch. xxvi. The latter opinion is de¬ 
fended by Thomas Aquinas in his Qudesliones. 

* Witsius, De Oeconom. Foederum Dei cum Iloniinibus IV. G. }. 3. 
advances the following sentiment: “ Licet modus in rebus sit, toler- 
abilius eum peccare existimem, qui Christum sevidere arbitratur, ubi 
fortasse sese non ostendat, quam qui eum [non ?J videre, ubi se dare 
satis affert.” Granting a golden mean in all things , still 1 consider 
his error more tolerable, who thinks he sees Christ where , perhaps, he 
is not to be found , than his , who fails to see him where he is distinctly 



easily introduced, were thus to become universal among the 
people, in order to awaken still further ideas,* and to pre¬ 
pare the way for the Christian economy. In this sense, we 
may apply to the universality of the types, what Lehmus in 
his Letter to Harms, p. 48. says, with great'propriety, of 
the prophecies : “ The entire religious system of the Jews 

is, in the most appropriate sense, a prophecy ; and the in¬ 
dividual passages of their sacred books are merely the strong¬ 
est expressions of that spirit which enlivens the whole mass.” 
To the same purport are the passages Col. ii. 17. and Ileb. 
x. 1., where the cxia or shadow is the obscure and imperfect 
resemblance, which falls so far short of the glorious splen¬ 
dour of the reality, that it can excite but very faint ideas of 

it. t Let us hear what a recent and ardent, although not 
always perspicuous and luminous, commentator on the Gos¬ 
pel of John ,X says concerning the symbol of the serpent in 
the wilderness : “ The position which Jesus seems to assume 
in this allegory is this: He regards the Old Testament ac¬ 
count as an indefinite symbol of the dltoncment —as a 
cvpfidkov (furvjgiag. And, indeed, it evidently embraces the 
two most important points in the notion of the Atone¬ 
ment, in the first place, a life-giving faith—that spiritual 
confidence, which, in the Old Testament, stood yet in 
need of sensible things, whereas in the New Testament it 
is purely spiritual in the regenerated family of the Lord; 
and secondly, the expiatory virtue of death in every thing 
which is sinful and corruptible; from which proceeds, 
in the Old Testament, an earthly life, in the New Testa¬ 
ment, a heavenly one; in the former case figuratively; 

* Without such preparatory ideas, the author of the liii. ch. of 
Isaiah couid not perhaps have taken up this prophecy. 

f See Rau, Ueber die Typologie , p. 71. The researches of this 
writer, however, m this department, are not sufficiently profound and 

J Luecke, Comm, ueber d. Schrift. des Joh. p. 598. 



in the latter, in deed and in truth” In this sense the rais¬ 
ing of the brazen serpent was also a type or prefiguration of 
what was yet to come, so regulated by Divine Providence, 
in order that, in later times, the faith in a spiritual deliver¬ 
ance, might confirm itself upon the certainty of the temporal 
deliverance. In regard to the symbolical meaning of the 
providential leadings of the Israelites, we may call to mind 
the passage cited'above from Solger’s Gespraeche, in which 
it is maintained that the collective history can be well un¬ 
derstood, only when we can comprehend the divine ideas 
which it. contains.* We may also concede, that the ideas 
which are communicated through the history of the people 
of God, must be far more noble and important than those 
communicated by means of other histories. Further than 
this we cannot go. Conscious of this, we should hold our¬ 
selves in readiness at all times to make the application. 

Thus we see that the writings of the Old Testament are 
rendered venerable by their antiquity, their perfect keeping, 
their doctrines, and their historical documents; that the 
Jewish nation stands pre-eminent, on the score of antiquity, 
steadfastness and wise legislation; and also that, in respect 
of morals, doctrines and history, the New Testament rests 
upon the Old. Let all those, therefore, who design to be¬ 
come labourers in the desolate and much neglected vineyard 
of the Lord of Heaven, peruse and receive the books of the 

* The words of Solger, to which he refers, are contained in a short 
note, (unfortunately overlooked by the compositor) on page 390, line 
3. Although of no great value in itself, we insert it here because it 
is referred to in this passage; and that the author may appear, in his 
citations from others, as well as in his own views, in histruelight; and 
that we may avoid, also, the imputation of a designed omission. “ Ev¬ 
ery thing in the world has an allegorical sense. How significant 
does the study of history become, when in every capital occurrence 
a grand idea is presented for our contemplation.” Philosophischc 
Gespraeche p. 149.—(Tit.) 


importance OF THE STUDY 

Old Testament, with that earnestness and sacred awe with 
which they deserve to be perused and embraced ; so that 
every copy of the Word of God, which the venerable Bible 
Societies are distributing, may meet with a Philip ,* ready 
to expound what the Spirit has spoken in the obscure 
word of prophecy, and point to the bright and morning star 
that shineth in a dark place. 

Those times are past when the Scriptures were trodden 
under foot. But let us take heed to ourselves, lest, in our 
modern agility, we leap clean over them. Let us approach 
this sacred volume, as one of exalted sacredness, and of im¬ 
mense importance to all;—with a holy seriousness, therefore, 
that we may prove whether it contains the truth in relation 
to our own hearts. Whoever reads the Bible with any 
other aim than this, had better turn to other food. We may 
apply to him what Porphyry says, in his treatise itsgi a# 
sjuu^wv, I. §. 27.: That he gives his “ exhortations ou ro7g tov 
c^ayfAcmxov /Si'ov etf avsXopivois' Ss XsXo yiff^vu rfcrs sanv 

xai it o&sv aAtjXuSsv, rfoTre fffteuSsiv otpsi'Xsi ; for,” he adds, “ we 
cannot tender the same advice to him who is constantly doz¬ 
ing, and, his whole life through, seeks for nothing but ano¬ 
dynes, and to him who continually strives to shake off sleep 
and to be vigilant.” 

Disregarding, therefore, for the present, every thing at 
which the understanding stumbles, we ought to make proof 
of those portions alone which concern our own hearts and 
our corruptions. If those be once recognised as true and 
certain,! then will be excited that hungering after a Saviour, 
and after strength from above, without which we never can 
be sanctified and purified. When we have once attained to 
this firm and deeply rooted faith, then the words of the Sa¬ 
viour are of divine authority, every thing which the Bible 

* Acts viii. 20. and following. 


f Let us keep continually before our eyes, Plato’s image of the 



contains, receives a higher meaning, and a spirit of exposition 
will be generated which the critically philological commen¬ 
taries of our day do not possess,—which conducted the Fa¬ 
thers of the church in the early centuries; which conducted 
a Calvin, a Luther, and a Melancthon, into those depths of 
scriptural knowledge which the Spirit of God alone explores. 
It is well said by Bacon, Lord Verulam—also one of those 
genial spirits that bowed themselves beneath the Gospel: 
“ Speculative philosophy resembles the lark, which mounts 
into the air with sprightly song and circling flight, but de¬ 
scends with nothing. Practical philosophy, on the other 
hand, resembles the hawk, which soars into the clouds only 
to return with spoil.” And where can “a man of long¬ 
ing”* find satisfaction, in the midst of the straining and driv¬ 
ing after fruitless speculation, which our age exhibits,.if the 
heart be not full and the soul warmed ? Every one who has 
discovered what it is which alone can satisfy the cravings of 
the human heart, wall exclaim with Epicurus: paxu- 

p!a cputfsi, 071 7a dvayxcuct. irfolyffs suiro^ioVa, ru os Svrfnog itf-ra oux 

chariot of the human soul, to which is joined a white and a black 
steed,—the black steed, however, pressing 1 onward more swiftly and 
ungovernably; or the image of the Persian poet Ssaadi, in the Bus- 
tan (Cod. ms. Bibl. Berol. Lib.v.) who compares the human mind with 
its passions, to a boy who stands high upon a steep declivity, holding 
by the halter a perverse young colt. For there is no nation that lias 
not a lively feeling of the dark interior of the human heart, which the 
Arabian denominates so appositely “ the grain of pepper in the heart.” 

It is the medicine and not the recipe that cures the disease. Gene¬ 
ral instructions and prescriptions will be of little avail, to induce men 
to take up arms against self. A new and divine seed must come 
from without, and be implanted in the soul; a new weapon must be 
furnished, if self is to gain the victory over self. The love of the 
world and of sin is something real; the love of God must be some¬ 
thing real also. 

* The old servant of Christ, Amos Comenius, thanked his God 
that from his youth upward he had been a “ vir desideriorum.” 

42G importance op the study, &c. 

uvaym’ta —“ Thanks to nature, for having rendered necessary 
things, of easy attainment, while those of difficult attainment 
are not necessary.” Moses also declares:* “For this com¬ 
mandment, which I command thee this day, it is not hidden 
from thee, neither is it far off: It is not in heaven that thou 
shouldst say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it 
unto us, that we mav hear it and do it? Neither is it beyond 
the sea, that thou shouldst say, Who shall go over the sea 
for us, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it and do it ? 
But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in 
thy heart, that thou mayest do it.” 

* 5 Mos. xxx. 11. and following. 






©fje Spirit of pjrtirrtB yaftnj. 



[continued from page 545. vol. u.] 





- -. • 

■ ' - • ■. ■ ■ >. . , _ 

■ t 


.V . ■ 

r - 

58m*jjet’s Dialogues; 


[Owing to unavoidable circumstances, the Fourth Lecture was broken off 
abruptly on page 545 of Vol. II., and it has not been in the power of the 
Translator to bring it to a close at an earlier period. A few additional 
remarks, at the close of this dialogue, in which Ossian is introduced, 
and the remarks illustrated by several passages from that poet, the 
Translator thought it best to omit.]—(Temp. Ed.) 

Who can understand the outspreading of his clouds. 

And the fearful thunderings in his tent P 
Behold he encompasseth it with lightnings, 

And covereth with floods the depths of the sea. 

By these he executeth judgment upon the people, 

Andgiveth also their food abundantly 
With his hands he holdeth the lightnings, 

And commandeth them where they shall strike. 

He pointeth out to them the wicked, 

The evil-doer is the prey of his wrath. 

E. All these images will occur in a more concise and beau¬ 
tiful form in the language of God, that follows.—The tempest 
is now rising upon them, and Elihu proceeds— 

Therefore my heart is terrified, 

And leaps from its place with alarm. 

Hear ye! O hear with trembling his voice, 

The word, that goeth out of his mouth. 

Itgoeth abroad under the whole heaven, 

And his lightniiur to the ends of the earth, 

Behind him sound aloud his thunders, 



He utterefh the voice of his majesty, 

And we cannot explore his thunderings. 

God thundereth marvellously with his voice, 

He doeth wonders, which we cannot comprehend. 

He sahh to the snow, be thou upon the earth, 

To the dropping shower, and the outpouring of his might; 

So that all men acknowledge his work. 

A. In the last words I like better the interpretation—He 
puts the seal upon the hand of every man, that is, they stand 
astounded and amazed, feeling that they are powerless—a 
feeling, that every thunder-shower awakens in us. 

E. The terrors of the storm are farther described. 


The wild beast fleeth to his cave, 

He cowers himself down in his den. 

Now eometh the whirlwind from the South, 

And from the North eometh the frost, 

The breath of God goeth forth, there is ice, 

And the broad sea is made firm. 

And now his brightness rendeth the clouds, 

His light scattereth the clouds afar. 

They wheel about in their course as he willeth, 

They go to accomplish his commands 
Upon all the face of the earth. 

We must be Orientals in order to estimate the good effects 
of rain, and to paint with such careful observation, the fea¬ 
tures and the course of the clouds.—It is obviously a present 
scene, which Elihu is describing in what follows— 

Attend ! O Job, and hear this, 

Stand and consider the wonders of God. 

Knowest thou how God disposeth them, 

Hew lie kindleth up the light of his clouds? 

Knowest thou how the clouds are swayed ? 

The marvellous doings of the all-wise. 

How thy garments become warm to thee, 

When he warmeth the earth from the South 
Hast thou with him spread out the firmament, 



That stands strong and like a molten mirror ? 

Teach us what we shall say to him, 

We cannot speak by reason of darkness. 

Shall it be told to men, when I speak? 

Let one open his mouth—Lo! he is gone, 

His light is no longer beheld, 

His splendour is behind the clouds ; 

The wind passeth, and they are dispersed. 

Now cometh the gold from the North, 

The fear-awakening glory or Eloah. 

As for the Almighty, we cannot find him, 

The great, the powerful judge, 

Unspeakable in righteousness. 

Therefore do men reverence him, 

The wisest behold him not. 

E. The consequence of the young pretender’s forwardness 
you perceive is, that he shows that to be impossible,-which 
in the face of his declaration is on the point of taking place. 
At the moment, when he is convincing himself, that the dark¬ 
ness of the clouds is a perpetual barrier between men and 
God, and that no mortal shall ever hear the voice of the 
Eternal, God appears and speaks—and how vast the differ¬ 
ence between the words of Jehovah and the language of 
Elihu ! It is but the feeble, proiix babbling of a child in 
comparison with the brief and majestic tones of thunder, in 
which the Creator speaks.—He disputes not, but produces a 
succession of living pictures, surrounds, astonishes, and over¬ 
whelms the faculties of Job with the objects of his inani¬ 
mate and animated creation. 

A. Jehovah spake to Job from out of the tempest, and 
said to him, 

Who is it, that darkeneth tho counsels of God 
By word.s without knowledge? 

Gird up thy loins like a man, 

I will ask thee, teach thou me, 

W here vva t thou, 

When l founded the earth ? 



Tell me, if thou knowest. 

Who fixed the measure of it ? dost thou know ? 

Who stretched the line upon it ? 

Whereon stand its deep foundations ? 

Who laid the corner-stone thereof, 

When the morning stars sang in chorus 
And all the sons of God shouted for joy ? 

E. We forget the geology and all the physics of more mo¬ 
dern times, and contemplate these images, as the ancient 
poetry of nature respecting the earth. Like a house it has 
its foundations laid, its dimension^ are fixed, and the line is 
stretched upon it: and, when its foundations are sunk, and 
its corner-stone is laid in its place, all the children of God, the 
morning stars, his elder offspring, chant a song of joy to the 
great architect and the glad welcoming of their younger sis¬ 
ter. Next follows the birth of the sea. 


Who wrapped up the sea in swaddling clothes 
Wlien it broke forth from the mother’s womb ? 

I gave it the clouds for garments, 

I swathed it in mists and darkness, 

I fixed my decrees upon it, 

And placed them for gates and bars. 

I said, Thus far shalt thou come, and no farther, 

Here shalt thou dash thy stormy waves. 

E. I do not believe, that this object was ever represented 
under a bolder figure, than that, by which it is here expressed, 
of an infant, which the Creator of the world swathes and 
clothes with its appropriate garments. It bursts forth from 
the clefts of the earth, as from the womb of its mother, the 
ruler and director of all things addresses it as a living being, 
as a young giant exulting in his subduing power, and with a 

word the sea is hushed, and obeys him for ever. 


Hast thou in tliy lifetime commanded the dawn ? 

And taught the day-spring to know its place, 

That it seize on the far corners of the earth, 



And scatter the robbers before it? 

Like clay the form of things is changed by it, 

They stand forth, as if clothed with ornament. 

From the wicked their light is taken away, 

Their haughty arm is broken. 

E. It is unfortunate, that we cannot more clearly repre¬ 
sent the dawn, as a watchman, a messenger of the Prince ot 
heaven, sent to chase away the bands of robbers—how dif¬ 
ferent the office from that, which the Western nations assign¬ 
ed to their Aurora ! It points us to ancient times of violence; 
when terror and robbery anticipated the dawn.* 


Hast thou entered into the caverns of the sea? 

Hast thou explored the hollow depths of the abyss ? 

Have the gates of death opened for thee ? 

And hast thou seen the doors of non-existence ? 

Is thy knowledge as broad as the earth? 

Show me, if thoH knowest it all. 

Where dwelleth the light ? where is the way to it ? 

And the darkness, where is its place ? 

That thou mayest reach even the limits thereof, 

For thou knowest the path to its house, 

Thou knowest, for thou wast already born, 

And the number of thy days is great. 

E. Every thing here is personified, the light, the darkness, 
death and nothingness. These have their palaces with bars 
and gates, those their houses, their kingdoms and boundaries. 
The whole is a poetical world and a poetical geography. 


Hast thou been into the store-houses of the snow ? 

And seen the treasury of the hail, 

Which I have laid up for the time of need, 

For the day of war and of slaughter? 

E. A vein of irony runs through the whole passage. God 
fears the attack of his enemies, and has furnished and secured 

* It is still the custom of the Arabs to go out on plundering excur¬ 
sions before dawn. 


on the spirit or 

his vaulted treasury of hail as the armoury of war. In the 
clouds too as well as in the abyss every thing breathes of 


Where doth the light divide itself, 

When the East wind streweth it upon the earth ? 

Who divided the water-courses of heaven ? 

And traced a path for the storms of thunder ? 

To bring rain upon lands, where no man dwelleth, 

Upon deserts, which no man inhabiteth, 

To refresh the wilderness, and the barren place, 

And cause the tender herb to spring forth. 

Who is the father of the rain? 

The drops of dew, who hath generated them? 

From whose womb came forth the ice ? 

The hoar-frost of heaven, who gave it birth ? 

The waters hide themselves and become as stone, 

The surface of the abyss is confined as in chains. 

E. Rich and exquisite pictures both of the heavens and 
the earth ! Above, the fountains of light gush forth, and the 
East wind scatters it over the countries of the earth, the pa¬ 
ternal ruler of the heavens traces channels for the rain, and 
marks out their paths for the clouds. Beneath, the water 
becomes a rock, and the waves of the sea are chained with 
ice. Even the rain, the dew and the hoar-frost have their 
father and their mother.—And then follows one of the most 
beautiful and sublime views of the Universe— 


Canst thou bind together the brillant Pleiades? 

Or canst thou loose the bands of Orion ? 

Canst thou bring the stars of the Zodiack in their season ? 

And lead forth the Bear with her young ? 

Knowest thou the laws of the heavens above ? 

Or hast thou given a decree to the earth beneath 3 

Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds ? 

And enter into them clothed with floods ? 

Canst thou send the lightnings, that they shall go. 

And say to thee, “ here are wo ?” 



Who gave understanding to the flying clouds ? 

Or intelligence to the meteors of the air ? 

Who by his wisdom hath numbered the drops of rain ? 

Hath sent down the gentle showers from heaven, 

And watered the dust, that it might unite, 

And the clods of the earth cleave together ? 

E. The description of the so called inanimate creation is 
here ended. But in the description no part of creation is 
without life. The stars, that joyously usher in the spring, 
are bound together in a sisterly union. Orion (or whatever 
constellation Chesil may be) is a man girded for action, and 
is the pioneer of winter. The constellations of the Zodiack 
rise in gradual succession like a wreath encircling the earth. 
The Father of the heavens lets the Bear with her young feed 
around the North pole, or (in accordance with another my¬ 
thology and interpretation) the nightly wanderer a mother of 
the stars, who is seeking her lost children, the stars, that are 
no longervisible, is the object of his consolation (perhaps effec¬ 
ted by bringing forth to her view new stars in place of those 
that were lost.) One, who by night observes the Bear in its 
course, as if feeding with its young on the fields of the sky, 
or the Zodiack, that, like a girdle with its beautifully embroi¬ 
dered figures, encompasses the earth, and rises gradually to 
view with the revolving seasons, and then reflects upon the 
times, when the nightly shepherds under an Oriental sky had 
these images continually before them, and in accordance 
with the fancy and feeling, that belong to a shepherd’s life, 
ascribed to them animated being and form—one, who does 
this, I say, will perceive at once the starry brilliance and 
beauty of this passage, although, as to its conciseness and 
symmetry, and the connexion of its parts, it can be but im¬ 
perfectly translated. It is the same also with the passage, 
in which God is represented, as giving understanding to the 
darkness, to the roving clouds, and meteors. The personifi¬ 
cations both of feeling and of form in poetry vanish in ano 

3 K 



ther language. Yet all these images, the sending out of the 
lightnings, and their reply, the going forth of God among the 
clouds, his numbering of the drops of rain, their gentle but 
copious descent at his command, are in the style of the most 
beautiful descriptive poetry. 

A. You seem to be an admirer of this whole species of 
poetry^—and yet our critics hold it to be the most barren and 
inanimate in the whole compass of the art. Some indeed 
will not even accord to it the name of poetry, and denomi¬ 
nate it a heartless description of things and forms, that are 

E. If such be the fact, I agree with all my heart, that it 
does not deserve the name of poetry. Those miserable 
writers, who describe to us the spring, the rose, the thunder, 
the ice, and the winter, in a tedious and unaffecting style, 
are neither good in poetry, nor in prose. The true poetry 
of nature has something else, than a dull description of in¬ 
dividual traits, to which in fact it is not principally devoted. 

A. And what has it in the place of it? 

E. Poetry. It makes the objects of nature to become things 
of life, and exhibits them in a state of living action. Look at 
Job. Here the earth is a palace, of which the builder laid 
the corner-stone, while all the children of God shouted for joy 
at the event. The ocean was born and wrapt in garments, 
like a child. The dawn is an active agent, and the lightning 
speaks. The personification is kept up, and carried through 
with consistency, and this gives to poetry its animation. The 
soul is hurried forward, and feels itself in the midst of the ob¬ 
jects described, while it is a witness of their agencies. Te- 
dious t descriptions, on the other hand, disjoin them, and para¬ 
lyze their powers. They exhibit but a tattered dress of 
words, abstracted and partial shadows of forms, where in 
true poetry we see actual and living beings. 

A. But who, my friend, could venture to write poetry in 
the style of the Orientals ? to represent the ocean as a child 



in swaddling clothes, the arsenals of snow and hail, and 
channels for water in the heavens ? 

E. No one should do it. For every language, every na¬ 
tion, every climate has its own measure in matters of taste, 
and the peculiar sources of its favourite poetry. It shows 
a lamentable poverty to attempt to borrow from a people 
so diverse, yet we must adopt the same principles, and create 
out of the same material. He, to whose eyes and heart 
nature has no life, to whose apprehension it neither speaks, 
nor acts, was not born to be its poet. It stands lifeless be¬ 
fore him, and it will still be lifeless in his writings. 

A. It follows then, that the ages of ignorance had great 
advantages over those, in which nature is studied, and be¬ 
comes the object of knowledge. They had poetry—we 
have only description. 

E. What call you the ages of ignorance ? All sensuous 
tribes have a knowledge of that nature, to which their poet¬ 
ry relates, nay, they have a more living, and for their pur¬ 
pose a better knowledge of it, than the Linnasan classifier 
from his bookish arrangement. For a general knowledge of 
species this method is necessary, but to make it the founda¬ 
tion of poetry would be about as wise, as to write it out of 
Hiibner’s rhyming dictionary. For myself I admire those 
times, when man’s knowledge of nature was perhaps less ex¬ 
tended, but was a living knowledge, when the eye was ren¬ 
dered discriminating by impassioned feeling, when analogies 
to what is human struck the view r , and awakened feelings of 

A. It were to be wished then, that the times, in which 
those feelings prevailed, were again experienced. 

E. Every age must make its poetry consistent with its 
ideas of the great system of being, or if not, must at least be 
assured of producing a greater effect by its poetical fictions, 
than systematic truth could secure to it. And may not this 
often be the case ? I have no doubt, that from the systems 



of Copernicus and Newton, of BufFon and Priestley, as el¬ 
evated poetry may be made, as from the most simple and 
childlike views of nature. But why have we no such poetry ? 
Why is it, that the simple pathetic fables of ancient or yn- 
learned tribes always affect us more, than these mathemati¬ 
cal, physical, and metaphysical niceties ? Is it not because 
the people of those times wrote poetry with more lively ap¬ 
prehensions, because they conceived ideas of all things, in¬ 
cluding God himself, under analogous forms, reduced the 
universe to the shape of a house, and animated all that it 
contains with human passions, with love and hatred ? The 
first poet, who can do the same in the universe of Buffon and 
Newton, will, if he is so disposed, produce with truer, at least 
with more comprehensive ideas, the effect which they ac¬ 
complished with their limited analogies and poetic fables. 
Would that such a poet were already among us, but so long 
as that is not the case, let us not turn to ridicule the genuine 
beauties in the poetry of ancient nations, because they un¬ 
derstood not our systems of natural philosophy and metaphy¬ 
sics. Many of their allegories and personifications contain 
more imaginative power, and more sensuous truth, than vo¬ 
luminous systems—and the power of touching the heart 
speaks for itself. 

A. This power of producing emotion, however, seems to 
me not to belong in so high a degree to the poetry of nature. 

E. The more gentle and enduring sentiments of poetry at 
least are produced by it, and more even, than by any other. Can 
there be any more beautiful poetry, than God himself has ex¬ 
hibited to us in the works ofcreation ? poetry, which He spreads 
fresh and glowing before us with every revolution of days and of 
seasons ? Can the language of poetry accomplish any thing 
more affecting, than with brevity and simplicity to unfold to 
us in its measure what we are and what we enjoy ? We live 
and have our being in this vast temple of God ; our feelings 
and thoughts, our sufferings and our joys are all from this as 



their source. A species of poetry that furnishes me with 
eyes to perceive and contemplate the works of creation and 
myself, to consider them in their order and relation, and to 
discover through all the traces of infinite love, wisdom, and 
power, to shape the whole with the eye of fancy, and in 
words suited to their purpose—such a poetry is holy and 
heavenly. What wretch, in the greatest tumult of his pas¬ 
sions, in walking under a starry heaven, would not experience 
imperceptibly and even against his will a soothing influence 
from the elevating contemplation of its silent, unchangeable, 
and everlasting splendours. Suppose at such a moment 
there occurs to his thoughts the simple language of God, 
Canst thou bind together the bands of the Pleiades,” &c. 
—is it not as if God himself addressed the words to him 
from the starry firmament ? Such an effect has the true po¬ 
etry of nature, the fair interpreter of the nature of God. 
A hint, a single word, in the spirit of such poetry, often sug¬ 
gests to the mind extended scenes, nor does it merely bring 
their quiet pictures before the eye in their outward linea* 
ments, but brings them home to the sympathies of the heart, 
especially, when the heart of the poet himself is tender and 
benevolent, and it can hardly fail to be so. 

A. Will the heart of the poet of nature always exhibit this 
character ? 

E. Of the great and genuine poet undoubtedly, otherwise 
he may be an acute observer, but could not be a refined and 
powerful expositor of nature. Poetry, that concerns itself 
with the deeds of men, often in a high degree debasing and 
criminal, that labours, with lively and affecting apprehen¬ 
sions, in the impure recesses of the heart, and often for no 
very worthy purpose, may corrupt as well the author as the 
reader. The poetry of divine things can never do this. It 
enlarges the heart, while it expands the view, renders this 
serene and contemplative, that energetic, free, and joyous. 
It awakens a love, an interest, and a sympathy for all that 



lives. It accustoms the understanding to remark on all oc¬ 
casions the laws of nature, and guides our reason to the right 
path. This is especially true of the descriptive poetry of 
the Orientals. 

A. Do you apply the remark to the chapter of Job, of 
which we were speaking ? 

E. Certainly. It would be childish to hunt for the system 
of physics implied in the individual representations of poetry, 
or to aim at reconciling it with the system of our own days, 
and thus show that Job had already learned to think like our 
natural philosophers, yet the leading idea, that the universe 
is the palace of the Divine Being, where he is himself the 
director and disposer, where every thing is transacted accord¬ 
ing to unchangeable and eternal laws, with a providence, that 
continually extends to the minutest concern, with benevo¬ 
lence and judgment—this, I say, we must acknowledge to be 
great and ennobling. It is set forth too, by examples, in 
which every thing manifests unity of purpose, and subordina¬ 
tion to the combined whole. The most wonderful pheno¬ 
mena come before us, as the doings of an ever active and pro¬ 
vident father of his household. Show me a poem, which ex¬ 
hibits our system of physics, our discoveries and opinions 
respecting the formation of the world, and the changes that 
it undergoes, under as concise images, as animated personi¬ 
fications, with as suitable expositions, and a plan comprising 
as much unity and variety for the production of effect. But 
do not forget the three leading qualities, of which I have spo¬ 
ken, animation in the objects for awakening the senses, inter¬ 
pretation of nature for the heart, a plan in the poem, as 
there is in creation, for the understanding. The last re¬ 
quisite altogether fails in most of our descriptive poets. 

A. You require, I fear, what is impossible. How little 
plan are we able to comprehend in the scenes of nature ? 
The kingdom of the all-powerful mother of all things is so 
vast, her progress so slow, her prospective views so endless— 



E. That therefore a human poem must be so vast, so slow 
in progress, and so incomprehensible ? Let him, to whom 
nature exhibits no plan, no unity of purpose, hold his peace, 
nor venture to give her expression in the language of poetry. 
Let him speak, for whom she has removed the veil, and dis¬ 
played the true expression of her features. He will discover 
in all her works connexion, order, benevolence, and purpose. 
His own poetical creation too, like that creation which in¬ 
spires his imagination, will be a true xo'<j>o g, a regular work, 
with plan, outlines, meaning, and ultimate design, and com¬ 
mend itself to the understanding as a whole, as it does to the 
heart by its individual thoughts and interpretations of nature, 
and to the sense by the animation of its objects. In nature 
all things are connected, and for the view of man are con¬ 
nected by their relation to what is human. The periods of 
time, as days and years, have their relation to the age of 
man. Countries and climates have a principle of unity in the 
one race of man, ages and worlds in the one eternal cause, 
one God, one Creator. He is the eye of the universe, giving 
expression to its otherwise boundless void, and combining 
in a harmonious union the expression of all its multiplied 
and multiform features. Here we are brought back again 
to the East, for the Orientals, in their descriptive poetry, 
however poor or rich it may be judged, secure, first of all, 
that unity, which the understanding demands. In all the 
various departments of nature they behold the God of the 
heavens and of the earth. This no Greek, nor Celt, nor 
Roman has ever done, and how far in this respect is Lucre¬ 
tius behind Job and David ! 



I. The state of the French Protestant Church, about the time of the revo¬ 
cation of the Edict of Nantes. From Quick’s Synodicon in Gallia Re- 
formata. Vol. 1. p. 142. 

Whil’st the Dragoons do thus ravage and ruinate the Pro¬ 
vinces, causing Terrors and Desolations where ever they 
come, Orders are dispatched to all the Frontier Countries 
and Sea-port Towns, strictly to guard the Passages, and to 
stop all persons who are departing the Kingdom. So that 
there was no hope left of saving themselves by flight. None 
could pass unless he brought with him a Certificate from the 
Priest of his Parish, or the Bishop of the Diocess in which he 
lived, that he was a Roman Catholick. Others are put in 
Prison, and treated like Traytors to their King and Country. 
All Ships of Foreigners lying in the Ports and Havens of the 
Kingdom are diligently searcht for Passengers ; the Coasts, 
Bridges, Passages unto Rivers, and the Highways are all 
strictly guarded night and day; and the neighbouring States 
are imperiously required not to harbour any more Fugitives, 
and to dismiss or send back again such as they had already 
received, and Attempts were also made to seize and carry 
away some who had escaped into foreign Countries. 

I have lying by me a Letter from Geneva , giving a dole¬ 
ful Account of the poor Refugees, who had fled thither. Pos¬ 
sibly the Reader will not be displeased at the reading of it. 

g IRi FROM GENEVA , NOV. 1685. 

It’s a good while ago that the French Protestants began 
to secure themselves both here and in Switzerland, yet it 
was but very slowly e’er they retired hither, there being not 
on this side of France those conveniences for them as in En¬ 
gland and Holland. However their number increased 
with their Persecutions ; and this Honour is due unto Gene¬ 
va , that tho’ at first (whil’st we supposed there was not an 



indispensable necessity upon our Protestant Brethren for 
their flight) vve seemed somewhat cold as to their reception ; 
yet having at last too great cause to believe it, I may speak 
it without vanity, that Geneva exercised a charity towards 
these Fugitives which will recommend her to posterity. I 
shall give you an undeniable proof hereof, and that presently. 
Ever since the first Troubles at Montaubon, and the great 
consternation of the other Provinces, Geneva never failed to 
receive and relieve with Monies and other Supplies, all that 
had recourse unto her, and for more than two Months togeth¬ 
er there passed not a day over our heads in which Geneva 
did not daily receive and supply 30 , 50 , 80 , 90 Persons of 
all Ages, of both Sexes, and of all Conditions. But as we 
had an occasion of satisfaction from the Charity of Geneva , 
so we must also avow, that it was utterly impossible not to be 
affected with such a multitude of pitiful Objects as daily pre¬ 
sented themselves unto us, and especially since the passages 
were guarded, some arriving disguis’d, on foot, in a deplora¬ 
ble condition, who, would they have left their God, might 
have been as to this World very happy. Women and Maids 
came to us in the Habits of Men, Children in Coffers packt 
up as Cloaths, others without any other precaution at all than 
in their Cradles tied about their Parents necks, some passing 
this, others that way, all stopping either at the Gates or 
Churches of the City, with Cries and Tears of Joy and Sor¬ 
row mingled together: some demanding, where are our Fa¬ 
thers and Mothers ? others, where are our Wives and Chil¬ 
dren? not knowing where to find them, nor having learnt 
any News of them from the time they departed from their 
Houses. In short, every one was so affected with these mis¬ 
erable Objects, that it was impossible to refrain from weep¬ 
ing. Some had no sooner passed the first Barricade, but 
prostrating themselves upon their Knees, sung a Psalm of 
Thanksgiving for their happy deliverance, tho’, poor Crea¬ 
tures, they had not wherewithal to get themselves a Meal’s 
meat, and might have gone to Bed that Night suppcrless, had 
not the Lord of his great goodness extraordinarily provided 
for them. Thus we spent two Months, every day affording 
us new Adventures, fresh and eminent Examples of Self- 
denial, and that divers ways. I shall give you a few Instan¬ 
ces. Among others, a Lady of great quality, the Mother of 
ten Children, whose Husband, Monsieur cV Arbaud, had 

3 L 



revolted from the truth at Nismes ; this Lady, 1 say, forsook 
eighteen thousand Livers of yearly Revenue, without ever 
having been able to make a Purse to defray her Journey; 
and, maugre all the Cares and Endeavours of her Husband 
and the Bishop, brought with her nine of her Children, and 
the youngest of them about seven Years of age : yet when 
she came here she had but two Crowns left her to maintain 
herself and them. It was but two days since that I bid 
Adieu to my Lord the Baron ’of Aubaye, who forsook 
above five and twenty thousand Livers of yearly Revenue, 
for the Gospel, and all his Stock was but thirty Pistols. I 
gave Letters of Recommendation to the Baron of Temelac, 
who is banisht for eight and twenty Years. This Nobleman 
forsook eight thousand Livers of good Rents, and departed 
hence with a very small Supply to seek some Employment 
where ever he can meet it, for his subsistence. My Lord 
de Bougi* departed hence some few days ago with eight or 
ten Gentlemen for Germany. I cannot reckon unto you 
an infinite number of other persons, whose Names are un¬ 
known to me. Six or seven came hither about five days 
since, who seemed to be the Servants of a Commander of 
Malta, bearing upon his Breast the great Cross. There 
came also a far greater Troop, who met at the Passes a mul¬ 
titude of poor People with their Wives and Children that 
had been stopt by the Guards, these force a passage for them 
with themselves, and conveyed them with their Baggage 
hither in safety. The City of Lyons hath given illustrious 
Examples of remorse of Conscience ; in particular, no lon¬ 
ger than yesterday, we had one, and that a very sensible 
one. A Woman and her Son, to secure an Estate of an hun¬ 
dred thousand Crowns, had sunk under the temptation, and 
revolted unto Popery ; but they were so tormented in their 
Consciences night and day after their Apostasie, that they 
could have no peace nor rest till they had quitted both their 
Estate and Habitation. Some others who had miscarried 
in the same manner, durst not tarry (through the stings of 
their inraged Consciences) any longer than for the first op¬ 
portunity of escaping, and brought with them to this City 
their Abjuration. This Abjuration of theirs is a certain Pa¬ 
per in which is written the Name of this new Popish Con- 

* One of the most illustrious Noblemen of Languedoc. 



vert, together with the Seal of the Bishop and that of the 
Magistrate of the place ; by virtue of which they be freed 
from quartering of Dragoons, and are permitted to go and 
come and traflick when and wheresoever they please. And 
among our new Converts this Paper is call’d, The Mark of 
the Beast. * I have seen several Copies of them. 

But you must not imagine, that all are come unto Gene¬ 
va. Switzerland hath entertain’d a vaster multitude than 
we, who have come unto them, and are daily coming from 
all quarters, some one way, some another, some as if they 
dropt down from the Clouds, that is from the tops of the 
Mountains, either of the Tranche County, or from those of 
Chablays; in short, no man can tell how or which way 
they are come unto them. No longer than yesterday, in 
despite of all Guards at the several Passes, and dangers of 
the Gallies, there arrived hither no less than fifty Persons. 
A tall Chairman, who had been a Lacquey, as he was com¬ 
ing from his House, espying Monsieur de Cambiaquet pass¬ 
ing over the Bridge, immediately stopt, and imbraced him 
in his Livery Coat. Four young Ladies of Grenoble dis¬ 
guised in Men’s Apparel, after they had lodged four or five 
days in the Forests and Mountains, without any other Pro¬ 
vision than a little Bread, and their Arms, having travell’d 
only by night, came hither but a few hours ago in this their 
gallant Equipage. Should I write you all the stories I know, 
we should never have done. 

About a Fortnight since a panicle fear of the Dragoons 
coming into the Land of Gex (where yet are reckoned about 
17000 Protestants, though most of them very poor People) 
had so seized upon their Spirits, that one Morning, we saw 
at our Gates, five hundred Carts loaden with Houshold 
Goods, and follow’d with an innumerable multitude of Per¬ 
sons, who went and came from all Quarters. On that side 
of Switzerland, and of the Mountains, there was yet a far 
greater power of them, in so much that it affrighted all the 
Country. The Governour came and complain’d of it unto 
our Magistrates ; but they replied, they could not shut the 
Gates of their City upon his Majesty’s Subjects, and bad 
they done it, there had been an unavoidable uproar among 
the People. However these poor People were desired to 

* See Gleanings, No. II. page 449, where this curious document is 




depart elsewhere, and not to expose our Commonwealth. 
To which they readily obeyed. 

And in as much as the Governour, a notorious bitter En¬ 
emy of the Magistrates and City of Geneva, though without 
cause, would not fail to make a foul brabble of this business, 
and because our Resident was expected in three or four 
days, we intreated generally, but with a great deal of sweet¬ 
ness, the greatest part of the French to withdraw themselves, 
as soon as possible, which they did, and of their own accord, 
without delay; but with a great deal of grief on our part, who 
lost at this first bout abundance of very godly People, with 
whose Company we were very much comforted. The Resi¬ 
dent being arriv’d, told us he had no order to speak about 
these matters, yea contrariwise, that he was only to treat with 
them as with particular Friends. But three days after a Letter 
comes, by which, the King, all in Choler, commands his Re¬ 
sident to be instant with our Magistrates, that immediately 
they drive out of the City, all his Rebellious Subjects, and 
charge them to return unto their respective dwellings. But 
mark the stinging consequence hereof. 

Hereupon the Council is assembled, and after divers De¬ 
bates they resolv’d, though to the great heart-breaking and 
general sorrow of the Citizens, to make Proclamation, that 
all the French should immediately be gone. Which was no 
sooner ordered but observed, yet not without a redoubled 
grief on their hearts, who had not departed the first time, 
and would willingly have continued. 

This Proclamation being published just as we were com¬ 
ing forth from Evening Prayers, it perfectly astonished and 
over-wdielmed those poor People, who reckoned this expul¬ 
sion as a second banishment from their Native Country. 

In the mean while our Resident inform’d the King of the 
submission of Geneva unto his Orders, and that in the fairest 
manner, and dispatched also our Magistrates Memorial with 
reference to the particular Complaints and Accusations of 
the Governour of Gex, our Magistrates intending a sincere 
performance of his Majesty’s Order, sent the Tithing-men to 
intreat everyone to depart with the first conveniency. This 
Order Executed with too much severity by the Under-Offi- 
eers, caused a new uproar among the People. However every 
one took Boat without delay, dreading worse News and Or¬ 
ders that might inforce them to return to their own Houses. 



In three days time there departed from us above a thousand 
Persons. Yet this wrought a very bad effect among the 
Commonalty of Switzerland, who were not able to pene¬ 
trate into the Causes moving our Commonwealth to yield 
this obedience at this time unto his Majesty. But there is 
yet something more Cruel. For the King sends us a thun¬ 
dering Letter, by which he approves the whole procedure of 
the Governour of Gex, in hindring all Commerce between 
Gex and Geneva ; so that not only no Provisions can from 
thence be imported into the City, but also none of the Inha¬ 
bitants of Geneva dare fetch in Herbs or Corn from their 
Gardens and Barns; yea, over and above, he commands 
them immediately to expel, out of the City, all Ministers that 
liad been setled in it within three years last past, as a Com¬ 
pany of Seditious Fellows, that held private Cabals in Gene¬ 
va to embroil his Kingdom. And he requires also of them 
an account what they had done with his Subjects whom he 
had ordered them to dispatch back again to their own homes, 
and that if he had not a satisfaction in full to all his Com¬ 
mands, he would make them repent that ever they had of¬ 
fended him. 

In a word, never had we a Letter, a Letter of this nature, 
in such a daring, menacing stile. Truly had it not been for 
our Magistrates, the People, who were exceedinly concern¬ 
ed at it, had quite broken out. The Switzers have a Gene¬ 
ral Assembly this Week. And thus you have a faithful ac¬ 
count of our present Condition. 

We wait impatiently for the King’s Answer to those'Letters 
which inform’d him of our ready Obedience unto his Orders. 
But we fear every thing, because he having once begun to 
make his demands, sets no bounds to them. The Switzers 
are hastning to their Assembly, and the People seems very 
resolute to stand up in defence of their Liberties and Reli¬ 
gion. Every one is ready to march at the first Signal. In 
the mean while the Switzers have been wonderful in their 
Charity. The Country of Vaux is fill’d in every Corner 
with French Fugitives. Within these three Weeks there 
have been reckon’d above 17500 Persons that have passed 
unto Lausanne. Zurich writ admirable Letters to Berne 
and Geneva, desiring them to send of those poor People to 
them, and that they would receive them as their own natu¬ 
ral Brethren into their Country, into their houses, yea, and 
into their verv Hearts. 



We long to know, whether the King will not make the 
same demand unto the Switzers as unto Geneva. But ’tis 
hoped they’ll not bate his Majesty an ace, but assert their 
own Rights and Soveraignty. Yet there being a Spirit of 
Bigottry crept in among the Popish Cantons, even in the 
very face of the Protestants, this troubles a World of People. 


N. N. 

Whilst all this was acting abroad, and other mischiefs done 
unto the Reformed at home ; The French Court sate close 
in Consultation about giving the last blow at the Roots of 
the Religion in that Kingdom, and how, and in what manner 
to repeal the Edict of Nantes. Very much time was spent 
in drawing up the matter and form of this new Edict. Some 
in the Council would have the King detain all the Ministers, 
and compel them, as he had done the Laity, to change their 
Religion, or in case of stubbornness and refusal, he should 
condemn them to perpetual Imprisonment. 

The reasons alleged for this were, that in case he did it 
not, they would be so many dangerous Enemies against him 
in Foreign Nations, and Trumpets of his Cruelty and Tyran¬ 
ny ; others on the contrary affirmed, that as long as the Min¬ 
isters continued in France, their presence would incourage 
the People to abide in their Religion, whatsoever care might 
be taken to hinder them ; and that supposing they should 
change, they would be but so many secret Adversaries nour¬ 
ished in the bosom of the Romish Church, and the more dan¬ 
gerous because of their great knowledge and skill in contro¬ 
versial Matters. This last Argument prevailed. And there¬ 
upon they came to a final conclusion of banishing all the 
Ministers, and to give them no more than fifteen days time 
to depart the Kingdom. 

The Edict is now given unto the Attorney-General of the 
Parliament of Paris, to draw it up in such a Form as he should 
judge most fitting. But before the publishing thereof, two 
things were thought necessary to be done. The first was, 
to oblige the Assembly of the Clergy to present by them¬ 
selves unto the King a Petition about this Matter before men¬ 
tioned ; in which also they told his Majesty, that they desir¬ 
ed not at present the Repealing of the Edict of Nantes. 
The second was, to suppress universally all Books made by 



those of the Reformed Religion, and that an Order should 
be issued out to that purpose. By the first of these the 
Clergy supposed they might shelter themselves from those 
Reproaches which would otherwise be flung upon them, for 
being the sole Authors of those many Miseries, Injustices, 
and Oppressions, which would infallibly be occasioned by 
the Repeal of that Edict. And by the other they designed 
to make the Conversions of the Hereticks more easie and 
feasible, and to confirm those which had been already made. 
For Ministers and Books being all removed, they could not 
possibly be instructed, nor confirmed, nor reduced back 
again to their old Religion. 

In fine, this Edict, revoking and repealing the Edict of 
Nantes , was signed and published on Thursday, October 
the 8 thy in the Year 1685. ’Tis said the High Chancellour 
of France, Le Tellier, expressed an extream joy when he 
put the Seal to it. But his joy was but as the crackling of 
Thorns under a Pot. It was the last act of his life. For no 
sooner did he return from Fountainbleau to his own House, 
but he fell sick, and died in a few days. ’Tis certain, that 
the Policy of this old Man, rather than any Cruelty in his 
Nature, induced him in his declining Years to join himself 
unto the Persecutors of the Reformed. 

This Revocatory Edict was registered in the Parliament 
of Paris , and immediately after in all other the Parliaments 
of this kingdom. 

II. The Mark of the Beast; or the Profession of the Catholic Faith, which 
the Protestants in France were forced to subscribe, through the violence 
of persecution in France. From Quick’s Synodicon , &c. Vol. I. p. 139. 


I do believe, and profess with a firm 

Faith, all and every thing and things contained in that Creed 
which is used by the holy Church of Rome , to wit: 

I believe in one God the Father Almighty, who hath made 
Heaven and Earth, and all things visible and invisible. 

And in one Lord Jesus Christ the only begotten Son of 



God, and bom of the Father before all Ages, God of God, 
Light of Light, True God of the True God, Begotten not 
made, of one substance with the Father, by whom all things 
were made; who for us Men and our Salvation, came down 
from Heaven, and was Incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the 
Virgin Mary , and was made Man, and was Crucified also 
for us under Pontius Pilate , he suffered and was hurried, 
and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, 
and ascended into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of 
the Father, and he shall come again with Glory, to judge both 
the quick and the dead: whose Kingdom shall have no end. 

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of 
Life, who proceedeth from the Father, and the Son, who 
with the Father and the Son together is Worshipped and 
Glorified, who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one 
Catholick and Apostolick Church. I acknowledge one Bap¬ 
tism for the Remission of Sins, and I look for the Resurrec¬ 
tion of the Dead, and the Life of the World to come. Amen. 

I receive and embrace most firmly the Apostolick, and 
Ecclesiastical Traditions, and the other Observations and 
Constitutions of the same Church. 

In like manner I receive the holy Scripture, but with that 
sense which the holy Mother Church hath, and doth now 
understand it, to whom it doth belong to Judge of the true 
sense, and interpretation of the Sacred Scriptures, and I shall 
never take it, nor interpret it, otherwise than according to 
the unanimous Consent of the Fathers. 

I profess also, that there be truely and properly seven Sa¬ 
craments of the new Law, instituted by our Lord JesusChrist, 
and needful for the Salvation of Mankind, although not alike 
needful to every one, to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, the 
Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Mar¬ 
riage, and that they do confer Grace. And that Baptism, 
Confirmation, and Orders, cannot be reiterated without Sa- 

I receive and admit also the Ceremonies received and ap¬ 
proved by the Catholick Church, in the solemn Administra¬ 
tion of all these fore-mentioned Sacraments. 

I receive and imbrace all and every thing and things, 
which have been determined and declared concerning origi¬ 
nal Sin and Justification by the holy Council of Trent. 

I likewise profess, that in the Mass there is offered unto 



God a true, proper, and propitiatory Sacrifice for the living 
and the dead, and that in the most holy Sacrament of the 
Eucharist, there is truely, really, and substantially, the Body 
and Blood, together with the Soul and Divinity of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and that in it there is made a Change of the 
whole substance of the Bread into his Body, and of the whole 
substance of the Wine into his Blood, which Change the 
Catholick Church calls Transubstantiation. 

I confess also, that under one only of those two Elements, 
whole Christ and a true Sacrament is received. 

I constantly affirm, that there is a Purgatory, and that the 
Souls there detained are relieved by the Suffrages of the 

In like manner the Saints reigning with Jesus Christ are 
to be Worshipped, and Invocated, and that they offer Prayers 
unto God for us, and that their Relicks are to be honoured. 

I do most steadfastly avow, that the Images of Jesus 
Christ, and of the Ever-Virgin Mother of God, and also of 
the other Saints, ought to be had and retained, and that due 
honour and veneration must be yielded to them. 

Moreover I affirm, that the power of Indulgences was left 
unto the Church by Jesus Christ, and that their usage is very 
beneficial unto Christians. 

I acknowledge the Holy Catholick, Apostolick, and Ro¬ 
man Church, to be the Mother and Mistress of all other 

And I promise and swear true Obedience to the Pope of 
Rome, Successor of Blessed St. Peter, Prince of the Apos¬ 
tles, and Vicar of Jesus Christ. 

In like manner, I receive and profess, without doubting, all 
other things left, defined, and declared by the holy Canons, 
and General Councils, and especially by the most holy Coun¬ 
cil of Trent. 

And withal, I do condemn, reject, and accurse all things 
which are contrary, and whatever Heresies have been con¬ 
demned, rejected, and accursed by the Church. 

And swearing upon the Book of the Gospels, he must 
say y 

I promise, vow, and swear, most constantly to confess 
(God aiding me) and to keep intirely and inviolably unto the 
death, this self-same Catholick Faith, out of which no Person 
can be saved, which I do now most willingly and truly pro- 

3 M 



fess, and that I will endeavour, to the utmost of my Power, 
that it shall be held, taught and preached by my Vassals, 
or by those who shall belong unto my charge. So help me 
God, and those holy Gospels. So be it. 

I of the parish of do 

Certifie unto all whom it may concern, that having acknow¬ 
ledged the falseness of the Pretended Reformed, and the 
truth of the Catholic Religion, of my own free will, and 
without any Compulsion, 1 have made Profession of the Ca- 
tholick, Apostolick, and Roman Religion in the Church of 
in the hands of In Testi¬ 

mony of the Truth hereof, I have signed this Act in presence 
of these Witnesses, whose names are hereunto subscribed this 
day of the Month of and 

in the year of our Lord 

Ilf. Refutation of P. Simon’s theory of transposition, as applied to the 

Twentieth Chapter of Genesis. From The British Critic , Quarterly 

Theological Review and Ecclesiastical Record. No. II. April, 1327. 

Art. 3. “ Review of Forster’s Critical Essays .” p. 342. 

Mr. Forster may therefore well pronounce P. Simon’s ap¬ 
plication of his theory of transposition to the twentieth 
chapter of Genesis, to be “ altogether needless,” alike “ un¬ 
called for by the circumstances and reason of the case.”— 
p. 23. 

But having shown it to be “ unnecessary ,” he proceeds 
to demonstrate that it would be “ absurd.' 1 '' 

To render intelligible his very ingenious and most satisfac¬ 
tory reasoning in this part of his Essay, it will now be ne¬ 
cessary to state, how, in the opinion of P. Simon, the dislo¬ 
cation of the passage, for which he contends, probably ori¬ 
ginated. This he refers to the mode in which the earlier 
books were written and put together. “ On ecrivoit autre¬ 
fois,” he observes, “ les livres sur de petites feuilles, qu’on se 
contentoit le plus souvent de rouler les unes sur les autres, 
autour d’un petit baton, sans les coudre ensemble. II est ar¬ 
rive quecomme on n’a pas eu assez de soin de conserver 
l’ordre de ces anciennes feuilles au rouleaux, la disposition 
des matieres a recu quelque changement.” 



If no other security for their preserving their right order 
existed, than the care which might be taken in rolling and 
unrolling these “ historical fragments,” for the purpose of 
reading or consultation, the chance oftheir retaining their pro¬ 
per stations might seem perhaps but small. Still, whatever 
derangement may have been subsequently introduced, at the 
time of composition, at least, the several portions of the his¬ 
tory would naturally occur in their right order. It becomes 
the duty of a true critic, therefore, in any case of uncertain¬ 
ty subsequently arising, to inquire, whether or not there be 
any thing in the writing or composition itself, which may 
enable us to fix, with certainty or probability, according to 
the circumstances of the case, the true position of the sup¬ 
posed dislocated passage. It is in the discovery and applica¬ 
tion of such a verification of the-place which the passage 
before ought to fill, and consequent justification of the ac¬ 
tual state of the sacred text, that Mr. Forster is, we think, 
eminently happy. Simon does not venture to say where he 
would have it stand; but his argument against its present si¬ 
tuation implies, that it must be placed “ somewhere prior to 
the seventeenth chapter ; the latter chapter, and to verse 5 of 
the twenty-first inclusive, undeniably containing the occur¬ 
rences of one and the same year. Now, that such a posi¬ 
tion of the chapter is impossible, Mr. Forster thus demon¬ 
strates : 

“In the seventeenth chapter l pause upon a circumstance, minute 
indeed, yet among the most remarkable and most worthy of remark, 
of the biographical incidents connected with the history of the Fa¬ 
ther of the Faithful. I speak of the two-fold commandment given 
by Jehovah, in the course of this memorable interview between God 
and his chosen servant, that ‘ Abram’ and 4 Sarai’ should thencefor¬ 
ward lay aside those names, received from man, and derived through 
heathen ancestors, and should receive and adopt other names, con¬ 
ferred on them by the voice of the Most High God, and imposed by 
the present ministration of Heaven. 4 And Abram fell on his face; 
and God talked with him saying: As for me, behold, my covenant is 
with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations. Neither 
shall thy name be any more called Abram ; but thy name shall be 
Abraham: fora father ol many nations have I made thee.’ (Gen. 
xvii. 3—5.) ‘And God said to Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, 
thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be.’ 
(Gen. xvii. 15.) 

“ The proverbial reverence of the ancient Jewish copyists for the 
integrity of the sacred text, (a reverence which, to this day, sets at 
defiance all imputation of wilful deliberate falsification of MSS. in 



the execution of their task,) is matter of unquestioned notoriety. But 
if ever there was an occasion more imperative than another for the 
exercise of this reverential accuracy of transcription, it may unhesi¬ 
tatingly be placed in the religious preservation of the distinction be¬ 
tween the humanly-bestowed and the divinely-appointed names of 
the Father and the Mother of the faithful. The single letters added 
in the one instance coma* tn:m and substituted in the 
other by the instant commandment of Jehovah, must 

have acquired and retained, in the eyes of Jewish piety and patriot¬ 
ism, on every principle of conscience and prepossession of the heart, 
which characteristically distinguished the Israelite from the rest of 
mankind, a value and a sacredness incommunicably and unchange¬ 
ably their own. 

“ In the controverted narrative of the present twentieth chapter of 
Genesis, the divinely-enlarged name Abraham, and the divinely-al¬ 
tered name Sarah, recur, the former in eight, the latter in five, se¬ 
veral examples. The theoretical translocation proposed for ourfadop- 
tion, in this instance, by P. Simon, will require that we throw 
back this twentieth chapter to a place in the sacred history certainly 
prior to the seventeenth. But the seventeenth chapter, we have 
seen, contains the record of that interview in which Almighty God 
imposed their prophetic and spiritual names on his chosen servant and 
handmaiden : consequently, in order to the establishment of P. Si¬ 
mon’s hypothesis of an accidental translocation of Gen. xx., we are 
driven upon the monstrous assumption, that by the Jewish transcri¬ 
bers, within the compass of a single chapter, the integrity of the 
sacred text, in one of its most sacred and inviolable features, has 
been wilfully and deliberately invaded and violated through a series 
of thirteen distinct examples,—has been wilfully and deliberately in¬ 
vaded and violated, in five instances by literal substitutions, and in 
eight instances by literal additions.”—pp. 24—27. 

A more complete refutation of an unfounded, though plau¬ 
sible theory, than that contained in the above extract, will 
not easily be found in the annals of theological controversy, 
nor perhaps a more effectual warning against the “ wanton 
attempts” of Simon and his followers, “ to make order give 
place to confusion, fact to hypothesis, the sacred truth of his¬ 
tory to the fallacies of a daring speculation.”—p. 27. 

IV. Biographical Notice of Thomas Hearne, M. A. From Townley's 
Illustrations of Biblical Literature. Vol. I. p. 97 

Thomas Hearne, M. A. the editor ot this valuable edition* 
of the “ Acts of the Apostles,” and the indefatigable collector 

* “ The Acts of the Apostles , printed at Oxford, is a fac-simile 
edition of a Greek and Latin MS. of the seventh century, preserved 



and editor of ancient books and manuscripts, particularly 
of our old Chronicles , was the son of George Hearne, pa¬ 
rish clerk of White Waltham, in Berkshire, in which parish 
he was born, in 1678. Having but little opportunity for 
learning, and his father being poor, he was, at an early age, 
obliged to earn his subsistence as a day-labourer. Happily 
for him, his abilities were discovered and fostered by Fran¬ 
cis Cherry, Esq. in whose house he had lived as a menial 
servant; but who, on perceiving his talents, placed him at 
the free school of Bray, in his native county, and afterwards 
educated him as his son. fn 1695, he was entered of Ed- 
mund-hall, Oxford. Dr. Mill, the principal of the college, 
soon marked the bent of his studies, and employed him as his 
assistant in the laborious task of collating MSS. for his edition 
of the Greek Testament. Dr. Grabe also availed himself of 
his useful talents in transcribing and collating various old 
MSS. In 1699, he took his Bachelor’s degree, which was 
soon followed by a proposal from his tutor, Dr. White Ken- 
net, to go to Maryland, as one of Dr. Bray’s missionaries ; 
but this proposal, not according with his views, was declined, 
and in a short time he obtained the situation of assistant to 
Dr. Hudson, the librarian of the Bodleian Library. In 
1703, he took his Master’s degree. In 1715 he was appoint¬ 
ed Archetypographus of the University, and Esquire-Bea¬ 
dle of the civil law. These offices he soon after resigned, 
because of his objections to take the oaths to government, 
being in political principles a Jacobite. From the same 
conscientious motive he refused several other advantageous 
preferments. The latter part of his life was devoted to the 
study of antiquities, and the editing and republishing of numer¬ 
ous curious antiquarian works. He died at Oxford, June 
10th, 1735. His taste for those researches, which formed 
the business of his life, was seen at a very early period; for 
' when he had only attained the knowledge of the alphabet, 
he was continually poring over the old tomb-stones in the 
churchyard. But nothing can more correctly characterize this 
plain and laborious man, than the following Thanksgiving 
found among his papers, after his decease: “ O most gracious 

among the Laudian MSS. in the Bodleian Library. The Editor was 
the famous Antiquary, Thomas Hearne, who printed only 120 copies, 
by which means the edition is become exceeding scarce. This was 
the first fac-simile edition ever printed. A copy of it is in the Collegi¬ 
ate Library, in Manchester.” Townley p. 96. Vol. i.—(Temp. Ed.) 



and merciful Lord God, wonderful in thy providence, I re¬ 
turn all possible thanks to thee, for the care thou hast al¬ 
ways taken of me. I continually meet with most signal in¬ 
stances of this thy providence, and one act yesterday, when 
I unexpectedly met with three old MSS. for which, in a 
particular manner, I return my thanks, beseeching thee to 
continue the same protection to me, a poor helpless sinner, 
and that for Jesus Christ his sake.”* 

V. The difficulties of Romanism in respect of Indulgences. From Fa¬ 
ber’s Difficulties of Romanism. Book I. Ch. XI. p. 177. London, 1826. 

Indulgences sprang out of the penitential discipline of 
the primitive church. Persons, who had lapsed into idol¬ 
atry, or who had been guilty of any scandalous crime, 
were separated by ecclesiastical authority from the body of 
the faithful : nor were they readmitted, until, by a course 
of austere penitence, they had sufficiently evinced their 
sincerity and their amendment. The church, however, 
which, like every other well organized society, possessed 
and exercised the power of ejecting or receiving mem¬ 
bers, was induced, when she had well-grounded reason to 
believe repentance sincere, occasionally to relax the se¬ 
verity, or to shorten the time of this required probation. 
When that was done, the grace, accorded to the penitent, 
was naturally styled an indulgence. 

Such, and such only, were the indulgences of the primi¬ 
tive church : and I know not what objection can be ration¬ 
ally taken to the system of her moral discipline. 

But, when the unscriptural notion of a meritorious ex¬ 
piatory satisfaction to God was annexed to the ancient 
probationary penance required by the church, the same 
idea infected also the simple primitive indulgence. If self- 
inflicted punishment for sin, or punishment inflicted by ec¬ 
clesiastical authority, could make an expiatory satisfaction 
to the divine justice: then the power of remitting such 
punishment was equivalent to the power of declaring, that 
the church, according to her own good pleasure and discre¬ 
tion, could assign to the divine justice a smaller measure of 

* Chalmer’s Gen. Biog. Dictionary, XVII. pp. 275—284. 



expiatory satisfaction than that justice would otherwise 
have claimed. Now this extraordinary speculation, in 
pursuance of which the church undertook to determine, 
that God not unfrequently was and ought to be satisfied 
with a lighter degree of expiation, than his own justice, if 
left to itself, would have exacted from the offender : this 
extraordinary speculation sprang naturally and of necessi¬ 
ty from the new doctrine of an expiatory satisfaction 
to God engrafted upon the primitive very harmless, or ra¬ 
ther laudable discipline of penance and indulgence. 

The revolting arrogance of so strange a speculation, 
when plainly exhibited in its true colours, and when no 
longer decorated or disguised by the specious eloquence of 
the bishop of Aire,* * * § must, I think, shock every well-regu¬ 
lated mind, t To imagine, that the divine justice would 
agree to be satisfied with a smaller quantity of expiation 
than the amount of its original requirement, and that each 
priest enjoyed the privilege of adjusting the terms of this 
yet more singular bargain between God and his creatures, 
is contrary alike to Scripture and to every consistent idea 
which we can form of the divine attributes. Yet this the¬ 
ory was but the legitimate offspring of the new doctrine of 
satisfaction as superadded to the old penitential discipline 
of the church. 

1. We are assured,’ however, by the bishop of Aire, 
that indulgences, viewed (be it observed) under the pre¬ 
sent precise aspect, rest upon the authority of St. Paul. 

That great apostle, says he, teaches us positively, that 
to the church belongs the double right of prescribing and 
of mitigating satisfactory punishments.^ 

For the establishment of this position, the bishop refers 
to two connected passages in the two epistles to the Corin¬ 
thians : but, in neither of those passages, can I discover 
the slightest vestige of any punishment, which, in his 
lordship’s sense of the word, can be denominated satisfac¬ 
tory .§ 

* A much respected Prelate of the South of France, in answer to 
whose Discussion Amicale sur VEglise Anglicane el en general sur la 
Reformation , the work from which this extract is taken, was written. 
See Repertory p. 317. Vol, III. —(Temp. Ed.) 

f Discuss. Amic. Lett. xiii. 

j Discuss. Amic. vol. ii. p. 227. 

§ 1 Corinth, v. 1—5. 2 Corinth, ii. 6—10. 



According to the ancient and godly discipline of the 
primitive church, the Corinthians, as St. Paul expresses 
himself, had delivered an incestuous member of their com¬ 
munity unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that 
the spirit might he saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. * 
This they did under the immediate sanction of the anxious 
apostle ; and afterward, when they were satisfied as to the 
sincerity of the man’s contrition, they pardoned him the 
disgrace which he had brought upon the church, and re¬ 
admitted him to the enjoyment of his former privileges as a 
baptized Christian. The circumstances and the ground of 
his readmission were communicated to St. Paul, and St. 
Paul in reply, informs them, that, as they had forgiven the 
offender, so likewise did he for their sakes in the person 
of Christ, t 

Such was the very transaction, from which the bishop 
has learned, that, by the special authority of St. Paul, to , 
the church belongs the double right of both prescribing and 
mitigating satisfactory punishments : punishments, that is 
to say, according to the bishop’s avowed doctrine, which 
should be able to make a meritorious expiatory satisfaction, 
not merely to the outraged church viewed as a body corpo¬ 
rate, but even to the divine justice itself. Yet, where is 
there a single syllable about any such meritorious satisfac¬ 
tion being made to the justice of God, from the beginning 
to the end of the entire narrative ? 

2. Bad, however, as indulgences may be when viewed 
under the present most unscriptural aspect, their evil ad¬ 
mitted of a still higher degree of sublimation. 

The bishop of Aire, himself a most respectable eccle¬ 
siastic, has no hesitation in pronouncing, with or without 
the consent of his church, that the validity of indulgences 9 
like the validity of absolution , entirely depends upon the 
disposition of the sinner. % This, no doubt, is making the 
be$t of the matter : but a lamentable story yet remains to 
be told. 

His lordship treads lightly over ground, which he is too 
good and too sensible a man to deem hallowed. What 
was the crying abomination, which first roused the indig¬ 
nant spirit of the great and much-calumniated Luther ? 
The pope actually drove a gainful pecuniary traffic in ec- 

* 1 Cor. v. 5. f 2 Cor. ii, 10. \ Discuss. Amic. vol.ii. p. 229. 



desiastical indulgences 1 Instruments of this description, 
by which the labour of making a fancied meritorious sa¬ 
tisfaction to God by penan e or by good works was pared 
down to the dwarfish standard that best suited the purse of 
a wealthy offender, were sold in the lump, to a tribe of • 
monastic vagabonds, by the prelate, who claimed to be up¬ 
on earth the divinely-appointed vicar of Christ. These 
men purchased them of the pope, by as good a bargain as 
they could make ; and then, after the mode of travelling- 
pedlers, they disposed of them in retail to those who af¬ 
fected such articles of commerce, each indulgence, of course,- 
bearing an adequate premium. The madness of supersti¬ 
tion could be strained no higher : the Reformation burst 
forth like a torrent; and Luther, with the Bible in his hand, 
has merited and obtained the eternal hatred of an incorri¬ 
gible church. 

3. It is worthy of observation, that the bishop is wholly 
silent as to the imaginary fund, whence the inexhaustible 
stock of papal indulgences is supplied. Whether he was 
himself ashamed of the doctrine of supererogation, or 
whether he thought it imprudent to exhibit such a phantasy 
before the eyes of his English correspondent, I shall not 
pretend to determine. From whatever motive, the bishop 
omits it altogether. His lordship’s defect, however, is 
abundantly supplied by the authoritative dcclaratioti of the 
reigning pontiff* 

fVe have resolved , says pope Leo in the year 1S24, by 
virtue of the authority given to us from heaven, fully 
to unlock that sacred treasure, composed of the merits, 
sufferings, and virtues, of Christ our Lord, and of his 
virgin mother, and of all the saints, which the author of 
human salvation has entrusted to your dispensation. 
To you, therefore, venerable brethren, patriarchs , pri¬ 
mates , archbishops, bishops, it belongs to explain with 
perspicuity the power of indulgence: what is their ef¬ 
ficacy in the remission, not only of the canonical pen¬ 
ance, but also of the temporal punishment due to the 
divinejustice for past sin ; and what succour is afforded 
out of this heavenly treasure, from the merits of Christ 
and. his saints , to such as have departed real penitents 
in God's love, yet before they had duly satisfied by fruits 
worthy of penance for sins of commission and omission, 



and are now purifying in the fire of purgatory, that 
an entrance may be opened for them into their eternal 
country where nothing defiled is admitted 

From a stock of merits, which the pope claims to have 
at his disposal, indulgences are issued, which shall not only 
remit the canonical penance imposed by the church, but 
which shall also liberate the fortunate possessors from the 
temporal punishment due for past sin to the divine justice, 
and which shall open the doors of purgatory to those suf¬ 
fering spirits who departed without having made full satis¬ 
faction for their iniquities by fruits worthy of penance. 

These then, it seems, are the avowed doctrines and prac¬ 
tices of the Latin Church, not merely during the dark 
ages of barbarous credulity, but in the full light of the 
nineteenth century : these are the high behests of that 
church, which, according to the explicit declaration of its 
visible head to every protestant community, is the mother 
and mistress of all other churches, and out of which there 
is no salvation.t 

VI. The Rise, Progress, and Vicissitudes, of the French Reformed 
and Protestant Churches at Rouen and Dieppe, in the Department 
of the Lower Seine, formerly the province of Normandy. Extract¬ 
ed from The Ecclesiastical Repertory, for the use of the Reformed and 
Protestant Churches of the Empire of France , by M. Rabaut,Jun 
p. 270. A French work published in Paris in the year 18074 

The Doctrine of the Protestants was preached and avowed 
in this province of Normandy, of which Rouen was the 

* Bull for the observance of the Jubilee, A. D, 1825. 
f Bull for the observance of the Jubilee, A. D. 1825. 

| This is an interesting statistical work, containing historical no¬ 
tices of the civil, political, and religious condition of the Protestants 
in France, before and since the Edict of 1787 ; the laws passed in 
their favour since 1787; the discipline of their churches, with the 
names of their pastors, &c. 

Prom the information contained in the Preface, it appears that 
previously to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the Reformed 
churches consisted of sixteen Ecclesiastical Provinces, and sixty-one 
conferences, each Province forming a provincial Synod. 10 1637, 
there were in France, eight hundred and six Reformed churches. 
served by six hundred and forty-one pastors According to the new 
organization, France proper, together with the appended Depart- 



capital, from the earliest period of its introduction into 

In J542, the Parliament of Rouen condemned to the 
flames, Constantine and his associates, on account of their 
religion, and because they preached the errors of Luther 
and Calvin. 

In 15-14, this same Parliament condemned to be burnt 
alive, an apothecary named William Husson, whose only 
erime was that of having circulated and distributed cer¬ 
tain devotional books. 

In 1560, several Reformed Churches were organized in 
Normandy ; one was formed at Luneray. 

In the month of August, 1561, Duperron, Minister of 
State, arrived at Rouen and published the Edict which 
prohibited the public exercise of the Protestant Religion. 
The church at this place was at that time in a flourishing 
condition, having four pastors in the city itself. 

On the 25th of January, a provincial synod was held at 
Rouen, at which was present M. Dubuisson, Gentleman, 
bearer of credentials from the Queen, addressed to the 
ministers who composed this synod. 

She expressed her satisfaction at the peace which subsis¬ 
ted between the Catholics and the Protestants. She pro¬ 
mised all assistance to the latter, inquired what force they 
would be able to furnish for her service and for that of the 
State, in case of necessity. The Synod replied, that she 
might count upon six thousand infantry and six hundred 

The public exercises of the Reformed Religion were 
held at that time in the suburb of Martinville. 

This state of things was not, however, of long duration. 
Certain women and tradesmen were accused of having; de- 
molished some images. The court despatched d’Aumale, at 
the head of a small force, to take possession of the city of 

ments, numbers one hundred and twenty-seven consistorial churches, 
and nineteen oratories. These are served by about six hundred and 
one pastors. The consistorial churches of the Augsburg Confession 
are sixty-three in number, and count five hundred and twenty-one 
pastors. The churches comprise, sometimes, individually, a number 
of congregations. One is mentioned as embracing no less than 
eighty-four congregations, and having but four pastors. We hope to 
be able to furnish some further extracts from this work in our next 
Number.—(Temp. Ed.) 



Rouen, to persecute its Protestant inhabitants, and to pro-r 
hibit all exercise of their Religion. 

The inhabitants resolved on self-defence, well aware that 
it was the Duke of Guise and his adherents, who governed 
France, under the name of the King and the Queen, whose 
confidence they abused. They armed themselves. They 
seized and look possession of two armed galleys then in 
their port. This circumstance v r as very serviceable to their 
cause, as it enabled them to harass the royal forces, and to 
command the banks of the Seine. 

It became necessary to invest the town. The Parlia¬ 
ment was obliged to withdraw, and retired to Louviers. 

The besiegers were frequently repulsed, and obliged even 
to withdraw. Having succeeded, however, at length, in 
making a breach, by means of a mine, the city was taken 
on the 26th October 1566, and the Protestants given up to 
be plundered. Marlorat, one of the ministers at Rouen, 
was arrested and thrown into a dungeon. He was arraign¬ 
ed before the parliament of Rouen, together w-ith those 
who had been accused of being ringleaders in this affair. 
These were the above-mentioned pastors; Dubose de Man- 
treville, President of the assistant court; de Soquence, a 
counsellor; John deCroses, de Vallefrenieres; and John dc 
Baleur, Blanchet le Nud, Richard Manger, Claude du Sac, 
captains and officers of the reformed forces, who had de¬ 
fended the city. These were all condemned to death. 
There was also an Elder, of the name of John Bigot, who 
shared the same fate. Shortly after, the king of Navarre, 
who had been wounded, died at Rouen, on the 17th of 

The evils experienced by the city of Rouen, led the 
Protestants of the city of Dieppe to anticipate the same 
treatment. Accordingly, a goodly number resolved to go 
to Antwerp and into England. Many gentlemen, together 
with Francis de Saint-Paul, minister of the place, came to 
this determination. 

Peter Mordant, the present minister, began to discharge 
the duties of his sacred office, at Rouen, Dieppe, and I un- 
eray, in 177S. At that time, the religious assemblies were 
held by night. In 1782, the brethren began to celebrate 
their worship in the open day. 

This pastor was opposed by the Intendant., the first Presi; 



yJent and Procurer-general of the Parliament of Rouen, 
Messieurs de Vergennesand de Miromesnil. 

The congregation of Dieppe, which assembled in the 
house of Mr. James le Griel, were forbidden, by a royal 
commission, to assemble. The same was the case with the 
congregation at Luneray. The bailiffs followed the pastor 
closely every sabbath, expecting to surprise him in the act 
of conducting the religious services, and to arrest him. He 
eluded, however, their vigilance. Many royal commissions 
were issued against him, but without effect. 

Finally the storm blew over. But this minister having, 
at Rouen, on the 17th February, 17S9, pronounced the be¬ 
nediction upon a mixed marriage, ratified before the royal 
judge, according to the forms prescribed by the Edict of 
J7S7, the grand chamber of the Parliament of Rouen, after 
hearing more than twenty witnesses against him, issued a 
warrant for his apprehension. On the 13th March of the 
same year he left his home, and found a reception at Paris 
in the house of Monsieur de Villedeuil, Minister of the 
Ring’s household, and in that of Monsieur Barentin, Keeper 
of the Seals. The decree was removed the next year. 
The constituent assembly having afterwards recognised and 
proclaimed the liberty of worship, the church of Rouen 
and its pastor enjoyed, and still continue to enjoy, the most 
perfect quiet—a quiet firmly established since the benefi¬ 
cent law of the ISth Germinal ,* year 10th of the Re¬ 

The doctrine of the Reformers was known at Dieppe as 
early as the year 1557. In the month of August of this 
year, a book pedler who resided at Geneva, passed through 
Dieppe, with a small pack upon his back, containing some 
good books. He sold a few, and several persons were cu¬ 
rious to hear, from himself, concerning the reformation 
which had taken root at Geneva, and was talked of in di¬ 
vers parts of France, but was as yet entirely unknown at 
Dieppe. The name of this pedler was John Venable. He 
was well informed, for one of his condition, in matters of 
religion ; every one was desirous of hearing him. They 
possessed themselves of his books, and forthwith commis- 

* Comprising the last 11 days of March, and the first 19 days of 
April.—(Temp. Ed.) 



sioned him to conduct their worship, until they could pro¬ 
cure a pastor. After a residence of about three months at 
Dieppe, Venable found the little flock augment to such a 
degree, that he thought it his duty to advise of the circum¬ 
stance Monsieur Delajouchfe, pastor of the reformed church 
recently established at Rouen, inviting him to betake him¬ 
self immediately to Dieppe, <c where ,” said he, u the har 
vest truly is plenteous but the labourers are few.” Mon¬ 
sieur Delajonche went and preached some sermons at Diep¬ 
pe, and wrote to the pastors at Geneva, to induce them to 
use their endeavours to procure a pastor for the church at 
Dieppe. They sent thither Monsieur Andre de Sequeran, 
Proprietor of Amont, who arrived there on the first of 
January following. He tarried there until the month of 
June of the same year. He then proceeded to Geneva, 
with the intention of collecting together his family, and of 
taking them with him to Dieppe. In this, however, he was 
frustrated. He died at Geneva three weeks after his ar¬ 
rival He was succeeded in his charge at Dieppe, by Mon¬ 
sieur Delaporte, one of the pastors of Rouen, who had, 
shortly after, for his colleague, during some time, the cele¬ 
brated John Knox, a Scotchman. During their ministry 
some of the most distinguished personages of the country 
embraced the reformed religion ; among others, a Monsieur 
de Bagueville, a descendant of Charles Martel, and two of 
his daughters. From the year 1558, a remarkable change 
was perceptible in the manners of the inhabitants ofDieppe, 
amongst whom, before that time, every thing scandalous was 
in vogue. In 1562, the great majority of the inhabitants 
professing the reformed religion, they established themselves, 
on the 16th May, in the church of St. James, the principal 
one of the city. Here they continued for the space of one 
year, at the end of which, in consequence of an Edict of 
pacification,* they were obliged to relinquish it to a few Ro¬ 
man Catholics, who were still to be found in the city, and to 
erect a church, at their own expense, in one of the suburbs. 
This edifice, having been very slightly built, was thrown down 
during a storm, at the expiration of about five years. This 
calamity rendered it necessary to build another, in the same 
suburb, (that of la Barre)—a substantial and elegant edifice, 

* Signed in May 1576.—(Temp. Ed.) 



which was destroyed upon the revocation of the Edict of 

After the massacre atVassy, which took place in 1551, 
Dieppe was exposed to all the horrors of the civil wars, which 
the Dukes of Guise stirred up in France. It was only by 
virtue of the Edict of Nantes,* that this church, together 
with those of Luneray and of the neighbourhood, enjoyed 
some degree of peace and prosperity. The revocation of this 
Edict,! and the consequent persecutions, reduced this church 
to a small number of individuals. The famous Admiral Du- 
quesne was of Dieppe, and of the reformed religion. He was 
not constrained to renounce his religion, but on his death, the 
public monument, which his services had merited, was re¬ 
fused ; his family was unable to obtain his body to deposit it 
in a tomb prepared by them in a hamlet of Switzerland, 
with the following inscription, of which Monsieur de Rhu- 
lieres has given the meaning: “ This tomb awaits the re¬ 
mains of Duquesne. His name is known upon every 
sea. Passing stranger, if you demand why the Hol¬ 
landers erected a superb monument to the vanquished 
Ruiter , and why the French have refused an honourable 
sepulture to the conqueror of Ruiter, the fear and re¬ 
spect due to a powerful monarch forbids me to replyf 
Since the reign of tolerance, his statue has been placed in 
the palace of our kings. 

The Protestants of Dieppe, of Luneray, of Autretot, &c. 
have been reduced, for more than a century past, to the 
simple exercise of domestic worship. The religious con¬ 
gregations were not re-established in this district until 1782. 
Still they met in secret. They were frequently molested 
and suspended by the manoeuvres of the enemies of the Re¬ 
formed Religion. Messieurs Mordant, Paumier, and Rc- 
villc, officiated as Pastors in this church for a long time. 
Monsieur Darnaud afterwards officiated, for a few months. 
Finally, they obtained Monsieur Nee, the present pastor. 

The Protestants of Dieppe are land-proprietors, shipr- 
owners, and merchants, chiefly occupied, in time of peace, 
w ith every kind of maritime commerce, which is reduced to 
nothing since the war. They enjoy a reputation and respect, 
justly merited, more by their manners than their fortunes. 

* In April 1598.— (Temp. Ec!) 

f October 12th 1605. (Id.) 



VII. Efforts made to prevent the importation and circulation of Tyndall’s 
Translation of the New Testament. From Townley’s Illustrations of 
Biblical Literature. Vol. II. p. 379. 

The English bishops exerted all their influence to prevent 
the importation and circulation of Tyndall’s translation. 
Severe proclamations were issued by the king, at the requisi¬ 
tion of the clergy, against all who read it, or had it in posses¬ 
sion. Humphry Monmouth,* who supported Tyndall abroad, 
was imprisoned in the tower; and though a man of wealth, 
was almost reduced to ruin. Penance was enjoined to Tho¬ 
mas Patmore, and to the author’s brother, John Tyndall, on 
suspicion of importing and concealing these books; and Sir 
Thomas More,lord chancellor, adjudged, “that they should 
ride with their faces to the tails of their horses, having papers 
on their heads, and the New Testaments, and other books 
which they had dispersed, hung about their cloaks; and at 
the standard, at Cneapside, should themselves throw them 
into a tire, prepared for the purpose ; and that they should 
afterwards be fined r at the king’s pleasure.” The fine set 
upon them was £18,840. Os. lOd. The learned chancellor 
was also induced, by the great patrons of popery, to employ 
his pen against the translator, and the translation. In the 
year 1530, or 1531., a royal proclamation was issued for 
totally suppressing this translation, which was pretended to 
be full of heresies and errors; and holding out the expecta¬ 
tion that another and a more faithful translation should be 
prepared and published.! Dr. Stokesley, bishop of London, 
who in the month of May, 1531, caused all the New Testa¬ 
ments of Tyndall, and many other books which he had bought 
up, to be brought to St. Paul’s church-yard, and there burnt, 
was one of the most cruel persecutors among the prelates of 
his time. Fox has entered into a long detail of those who 
suffered in his diocese : from him we extract the following- 
particulars of the charges laid againt several who were im¬ 
prisoned, and compelled to abjure. 

* See Gleanings No. VIII. for an account of this man.—(Temp. 

f Newcome’s Historical View of the English Biblical Translations, 
pp. 20—22. Dublin, 1792, 8vo. 

Henry’s Hist, of Great Britain, B. vi. ch. ii. sec. 2. p. 59. 

Strype’s Memorials ot Archbishop Cranmer, I. B. i. ch. xxi. p. 116f 



“ John Raimund, a Dutchman, 1528.” 

“For causing 1500 of Tindal’s New Testaments to be 
printed at Antwerpe, and for bringing 500 into England.” 

“ Thomas Curson, monke of Bastacre, in Northfolke, 

“ His articles were these For going out of the monastery, 
and changing his weede, and letting his crowne to grow, work¬ 
ing abroad for his living, making copes and vestiments. 
Also, for having the New Testament of Tindal’s translation, 
and another booke containing certaine bookes of the Old 
Testament , translated into English, by certain whom the 
papists call Lutherans.” 

“John Row, book-binder, a Frenchman, 1531.” 

“ This man, for binding, buying, and dispersing of bookes 
inhibited, was enjoined beside other penance, to goe to Smith- 
field with his bookes tied about him, and to cast them in the 
fire, and there to abide till they were all burnt to ashes.” 

“ Christopher, a Dutchman, of Antwerp, 1531.” 

“ This man, for selling certaine New Testaments, in 
English, to John Row aforesaid, was put in prison, at West¬ 
minster, and there died.” 

“ W. Nelson, priest, 1531.” 

“ His crime was, for having, and buying, of Periman, cer¬ 
taine bookes of Luther, Tindall, Thorpe, &c. and for read¬ 
ing and perusing the same contrary to the king’s proclama¬ 
tion, for the which he was abjured. He was priest at Lith.” 

“ Edward Hewet, servingman, 1531.” 

“ His crime : That after the king’s proclamation, he had 
read the Neiv Testament in English : also the booke of 
John Frith against Purgatory, &c.” 

“Walter Kiry, servant, 1531.” 

“ His article : That he, after the king’s proclamation, had 
and used these bookes: the Testament in English, the 
Summe of Scripture, a Primer and Psalter in English, 
hidden in his bedstraw at Worcester.” 

“John Mel, of Bockstead, 1532.” 

“ His heresy was this: for having and reading the New 
Testament, in English, the Psalter, in English, and the 
book called A, B, C.”* 

* Fox, II. pp. 315—322. 

Strype’e Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, I. p. 116. 

3 o 



VIII. Account of Mr. Humphrey, Monmouth the Patron of Tyndall. 

From Fox’s Actes and Monuments , ii. p. 257. Ed. Lond. 1641. 

“ Master Humfrey Mummuth was a right godly and sin¬ 
cere alderman of London, who, in the dayes of Cardinall 
Wolsey, was troubled and put in the tower, for the Gospell 
of Christ, and for maintaining them that favoured the same.” 

“ Stockesley, then bishop of London, ministred articles 
unto him to the number of foure and twentie ; as for adhering 
to Luther and his opinions ; for having and reading hereticall 
bookes and treatises ; for giving exhibition to William Tin¬ 
dall, Roy, and such other; for helping them over the sea to 
Luther; for ministring prime helpe to translate, as well the 
Testament, as other bookes into English ; for eating flesh in 
Lent; for affirming faith onely to justilie; for derogating from 
men’s constitutions ; for not praying to saints, not allowing 
pilgrimage, auricular confession, the pope’s pardons : briefe- 
ly, for being an advancer of all Martin Luther’s opi¬ 
nions, &c.” 

‘•Hee being of these articles examined, and cast into the 
tower, at last was compelled to make his sute or purga 
tion, writing to the Cardinall, then lord chancellor, and 
the whole councell, out of the Tower. In the contents 
whereof he answered to the criminous accusation of them 
which charged him with certaine bookes received from be¬ 
yond the sea; also for his acquaintance with master^Tin- 
dall. Whereupon he said, that he denied not, but that foure 
yeares then past hee had heard the said Tindall preach two 
or three sermons at Saint Dunstan’s in the West, and after¬ 
ward meeting with the said Tindall, had certaine communi¬ 
cation with him concerning his living: who then told him 
that he had none at all, but trusted to be in the bishop of 
London his service ; for then hee laboured to be his chap- 
laine. But being refused of the bishop, hee came again to 
the said Mummuth this examinate, and besoughte him to 
helpe him. Who the same time tooke him into his house 
for halfe a yeare: where the said Tindall lived (as he said) 
like a good priest, studying both night and day. He would 
eat but sodden meat by his good will, nor drinke but small 
single beare. He was never seen in that house to weare lin- 
nen about him, all the space of his being there. Whereupon 
the said Mummuth had the better liking of him, so that he 



promised him ten pound, (as he then said,) for his father’s 
and mother’s soules, and all Christian soules ; which money, 
afterward, he sent him over to Hamborow, according to hi* 
promise. And yet not to him alone hee gave his exhibition, 
but to divers other moe likewise which were no heretikes: 
as, to Doctor Royston, the bishop of London’s chaplaine, 
hee exhibited fortie or fiftie pounds ; to Doctor Wodihall, 
provinciall of the frier Augustins, as much, or more; to Doc¬ 
tor Watson, the king’s chaplaine; also to other schollers, 
and divers priests ; besides other charges bestowed upon re¬ 
ligious houses, as upon the nunnerie of Denney, above fiftie 
pounds sterling bestowed, &c.” 

“ And as touching his bookes, as Enchiridion , the Pater 
Noster, De Libertate Christiana, an English Testament , 
of which, some William Tindall left with him, some hee sent 
unto him, some were brought into his house, by whom he 
could not tell; these bookes hee said, did lie open in his 
house, the space of two yeares together, he suspecting no 
harme to be in them. And, moreover, the same bookes be¬ 
ing desired of sundry persons, as of the abbesse of Denney, 
a frier of Greenewich, the father confessor of Sion, he let 
them have them, and yet he never heard frier, priest, or lay¬ 
man find any fault with the said books. Likewise to Doctor 
Watson, to Doctor Stockhouse, Master Martin, parson of 
Totingbecke, he committed the perusing of the bookes of 
Pater Noster, and De Libertate Christiana, which found 
no great fault in them, but only in the booke De Libertate 
Christiana, they said there were things somewhat hard, ex¬ 
cept the reader were wise.” 

“ Thus he excusing himselfe, and moreover complaining 
of the losse of his credit by his imprisonment in the tower, 
and of the detriments of his occupying, who was wont yeerly 
to ship over five hundred clothes to strangers, and set many 
clothiers aworke in SufTolke, and in other places, of whom he 
bought all their clothes, which were now almost all undone; 
by this reason, at length, he was set at libertie, being forced 
to abjure, and after was made knight by the king, and sheriffe 
of London.” 

“ Of this Humfrey Mummuth we read of a notable exam¬ 
ple of Christian patience, in the sermons of Mr. Latimer, 
which the said Latimer heard in Cambridge, of Master George 
Stafford, reader of the divinitie lecture in that universitie. 



Who, expounding the place of St. Paul to the Romans, that 
we shall overcome our enemie with well doing, and so heape 
hot coles upon his head, &c. brought in an example, saying, 
that he knew in London, a great rich merchant, (meaning 
this Humfrey Mummuth,) which had a very poore neighbour: 
yet, for all his povertie he loved him very well, and lent him 
money at his need, and let him come to his table whensoever 
he would. It was even at that time when Doctor Collet 
was in trouble, and should have beene burnt, if God had 
not turned the king’s heart to the contrary. Now the rich 
man began to be a Scripture man, he began to smell the 
Gospel. The poore man was a papist still. It chanced on 
a time, when the rich man talked of the Gospell, sitting at 
his table, where he reproved popery and such kinde of 
things ; the poore man being there present, tooke a great dis¬ 
pleasure against the rich man, insomuch that he would come 
no more to his house ; he would borrow no more money of 
him as he was wont to doe before times, yea, and conceived 
such hatred and malice against him, that he went and ac¬ 
cused him before the bishops. Now the rich man not know¬ 
ing of any such displeasure, offered many times to talke with 
him, and to set him at quiet. It would not be. The poore 
man had such a stomacke, that he would not vouchsafe to 
speake with him. If hee met the rich man in the streete, he 
would go out of his way. One time it happened that hee 
met him so in a narrow street, that he could not avoyd but 
come neere him ; yet, for all this, the poore man (I say,) had 
6uch a stomacke against the rich man, that hee was minded 
to go forward, and not to speake with him. The rich man 
perceiving that, caught him by the hand, and asked him, say¬ 
ing, “ Neighbour, what is come into your heart to take such 
displeasure with me ? What have 1 done against you ? Tell 
mee, and I will bee readie at all times to make you amends.’ 
Finally, hee spake so gently, so charitably, so lovingly, and 
friendly, that it wrought so in the poore man’s heart, that by 
and by, he fell downe upon his knees, and asked him forgive¬ 
ness. The rich man forgave him, and so tooke him againe to 
his favour, and they loved as well as ever they did afore.” 



Library of the Duke of Sussex. —A work is now in pre¬ 
paration (the first two Parts of which are just published from 
Mr. Valpy’s Press) under the superintendence of Mr. Petti¬ 
grew, Librarian of the Duke of Sussex, entitled “ A Cata¬ 
logue of the singularly rare and valuable collection of MSS. 
and Books contained in the Library of the Duke of Sussex, 
at Kensington Palace.” 

The first part of the first volume is devoted to the de¬ 
scription of the Theological MSS. of which there are nearly 
300, and chiefly of the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth centuries, though some of them are as early as the 
tenth. Those manuscripts are in various languages: He¬ 
brew, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German, Dutch, 
English, Irish, Arabic, Persian, Armenian, Pali, Singhalese, 
and Burman. 

The Hebrew Manuscripts are 44 in number, and some 
of them are of very great value. The Pentateuchs on Af¬ 
rican and Basil_skins are considered the finest in the country. 
—One of them measures 144 feet in length, 23 inches in 
breadth, consists of 72 skins, and is arranged in 263 columns, 
each of which has 42 lines. The History of the Hebrew 
MSS. is a curious narrative respecting the Hebrew MSS. of 
the Bible, of the manner directed to be written, and of the 
rules laid down by the Jews with respect to their manuscripts, 
by which the integrity of the text may be preserved. The 
character of the Hebrew MSS. is arranged under the divi¬ 
sions of Spanish, Italian, and German, the former of which 
is designated as the most beautiful. In the collection, there 
are two complete Hebrew MSS. of the Bible, one of the 
13th, the other of the 15th century, the latter with illumina¬ 
tions. There are also three Pentateuchs, various commen¬ 
taries, and Rabbinical and Cabalistic works. There is a 
Pentateuch of the 13th century, in Hebrew and Chaldee, ac¬ 
companied by illuminations of an exceedingly curious na¬ 
ture, and of which fine fac-similes (by G. Cruikshank) are 
given. All the terms peculiar to MSS. are also detailed and 

Among the Greek Manuscripts , there is one of the New 
Testament of the 13th century, which contains the whole of 
the books, with the exception of the Apocalypse. Some of 



the readings peculiar to this MS. are noticed, and a fac-simile 
is given of the first page of the Gospel of St. Matthew, to¬ 
gether with an illumination, ably executed by Mr. Harris in 
lithography. There are also various Greek MSS. of the 
Fathers of the Church, and among the Homilies of St. 
Chrysostom, is that which was personally directed against the 
Empress Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius, whom he depicts asHe- 
rodias, and for which he was degraded from his episcopal 
dignity, and banished from Constantinople. Biographical 
sketches of the Fathers accompany the notice of the several 

The Latin Manuscripts are both numerous and of great 
rarity. There are sixteen MSS of the Vulgate, enriched 
with the most splendid illuminations. There are two MSS. 
of the Bible allegorised in Latin verses, some of which are 
in rhyme. The whole is included under the title of “Aurora,” 
which title Mr. Pettigrew conceives is probably intended to 
allude to the light supposed to be thrown on the obscure pas¬ 
sages of Scripture by the allegorical mode of interpretation. 
Specimens of such work are given in this Catalogue. It is at¬ 
tributed to Petris de Riga, a Canon of Rheims, who flourished 
under the Emperor Frederick I. There are various MSS. 
of several of the Books of the Old and New Testaments, 
and some very fine Psalters. Illustrative of one of the 10th 
century, it being remarkably curious, there are three plates 
of fac-similes. The Commentaries by the Fathers are of 
early date and numerous. There is a MS. Commentary on 
the Gospel of St. Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, by the 
venerable Bede, which was made about the year 1480, for 
Ferdinand King of Castile. Of the MSS. of the Latin Fa¬ 
thers, those of St. Austin, St. Athanasius, and St. Ambrose, 
are the most numerous. There is a MS. of the 1 celebrated 
work of Servetus, “ Christianismi Restitutio,” and a very 
interesting memoir of the unfortunate author. 

The department of Missals, Breviaries, Books of Of¬ 
fices , fyc. is very rich ; and considerable service is rendered 
by the Author pointing out the contents of these various ser¬ 
vices of the Roman Church, which are so frequently con¬ 
founded by collectors of rare and curious books. 

The French Manuscripts are especially distinguished by 
a Commentary on the Bible entitled, “Za Bible Moralisbef 
frow the Townley collection. The illuminations in this vo- 



lume are in chiaro oscuro. A fine folio MS. of “ The Gold¬ 
en Legend” is remarkable, as showing the various stages of 
the illuminative art. In the Italian Manuscripts, there is 
a very curious History of the Old Testament, enriched with 
519 paintings. It forms a kind of Biblia Pauperum , and 
belongs to the 15th century. This article is accompanied 
by four fac-similes of the costume of the period. The Span¬ 
ish, German, and Dutch MSS. follow next. 

In the English Manuscripts there is a paraphrase on the 
Book of Job, by George Sandys, who was Gentleman of the 
Chamber to Charles I., and pronounced by Dryden to have 
been the first versifier of the age. There is a curious Irish 
Manuscript, entitled “ The Three Shafts of Death f by 
Dr. Geoffrey Keating, the author of a “ History of Ireland.” 

The Arabic Manuscripts relate to the Koran, of which a 
very interesting account is given; and a splendid one, which 
formerly belonged to Tippoo Saib, is particularly described. 
There is a Persian Manuscript of the Gospels, and an Ar¬ 
menian MS. of the same, with singularly beautiful illumina¬ 
tions. This is of the 13th century, on vellum, and is, per¬ 
haps, the most valuable Armenian MS. in the country. They 
are of exceeding rarity. The MSS. in the square Pali cha¬ 
racter, obtained from Rangoon, are, if not unique, the finest 
in this country. They are of the most splendid description, 
and one of them is on plates of ivory . The letters are in 
Japan, and richly ornamented with gold. Mr. Pettigrew 
gives an account of the Pali language, and fully describes the 
MSS.— Class. Journ. for March, 1827. p. 156. 

We have authority for stating that the edition of the Sep- 
tuagint begun by the late Dr. Holmes at Oxford, and car¬ 
ried on since his death by the Rev. J. Parsons, B. D. will 
speedily be completed. Of the fifth and last volume, con¬ 
taining the Apocryphal Books, nearly the whole is printed off; 
and considerable progress made in the concluding fasciculus 
of the Fourth Volume; so that there is little doubt that the 
whole will be finished within the course of the present year. 
—Ib. p. 162. 

A work is in progress entitled Theological Institutes ; 
or a View of the Evidences, Doctrines, Morals, and In¬ 
stitutions of Christianity. By Richard Watson. First 
American from the second London edition. Published in 
N. York by N. Bangs and J. Emory, for the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 



“ The object of this work is to exhibit the Evidences, 
Doctrines, Morals, and Institutions of Christianity, in a form 
adapted to the use of young ministers and students in Divini¬ 
ty. It is hoped also, that it may supply the desideratum of a 
Body of Divinity adapted to the present state of theological 
literature neither Calvinistic on the one hand, nor Pelagian 
on the other.” 

The first volume has made its appearance in this country. 
The second volume was issued from the press in London in 
January last. The first part of this volume is in the press in 
New-York. The second part is expected daily.* It is ex¬ 
pected that a third volume will be added, and that the author 
is now engaged in writing it. The work has been favourably 
received in England, the first volume having already gone 
through two editions. 

The Lives of the Bishops of Winchester, from the first 
Bishop, down to the present time. By the Rev. Stephen 
Hyde Cassan, A. M. 

This work has been announced for some months as in the 
press. It is expected to embrace an exact reprint of the 
scarce volume known by the name of Sale’s History of Win¬ 

Saurin’s Sermons, now in the press of D. A. Borrenstein, 
Princeton, N. J., to be comprised in one vol. 8vo., complete, 
will be ready for delivery in the course of September next. 

A new religious Magazine, on the plan of the Museum of 
Foreign Science and Literature, is announced by E. Littell, 
Philadelphia. A Prospectus will probably be issued in July. 

Messrs. Howell and Stuart, London, have issued a Pros¬ 
pectus of a new Periodical Quarterly Publication, entitled 
‘ Museum Theologicum , or General Collection of Theo¬ 
logical Literature.'’ 

This work is to contain a Series of Critical, Dogmatical 
and Exegetical Treatises on Divinity; Translations of the 
best Essays which the Continent furnishes in these Depart¬ 
ments ; Epitomies of larger works and Original composi¬ 
tions. No reviews are to be admitted. The first Number 
will be committed to the press, when a Number of Sub¬ 
scribers sufficient to authorize the Publication shall be pro¬ 

* Our last information was three or four weeks since. 



Hebrew Tales, selected and translated from the writings of the ancient He¬ 
brew Sages : to which is prefixed, an Essay on the Uninspired Literature 
of the Hebrews, By Hyman Hurwitz, Author of Vindiciae Hebraicae, 
&c. &c. London. 1826. 

A Dissertation on the Means of Regeneration. By Gardiner Spring, D. D. 
New-York. 1827. 

Passages cited from the Old Testament, by the writers of the New Testa¬ 
ment compared with the original Hebrew and the Septuagint version, 
arranged, &c. By Prof. Stuart of Andover, Mass. 

The Life of John Sharpe, D. D. Lord Archbishop of York, by his Son, 
Thomas Sharpe, D. D. Edited by Thomas Newcome, M. A. London. 
1825. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Critical Essays on Genesis, Ch. xx., and on St. Matthew, Ch. ii. 17, 18, 
with Notes. By the Rev. Charles Forster, B.D. Dublin & London. 8vo. 

Sermons, chiefly designed to display the Connection between a sound Faith 
and a holy Life. By the Rev. Edward Patteson, M. A. London. 1826. 
1 vol. 8vo. 

An Account of the Indexes, both prohibitory and expurgatory of the Church 
of Rome. By the Rev J. Mendham, M. A. 8vo. London, 1826. 

This volume contains an account of the scarce and curious 
works, mentioned in the title, from the year 1559 to 1806. 
Almost the whole of them are in the author’s possession, 
and he is therefore enabled to give a satisfactory and accu¬ 
rate description of their contents arid peculiarities. The 
rules of the Council of Trent on the subject are given in 
English at pages 32-41, and are followed by long descrip¬ 
tions of, and occasional observations on, the Belgic, Portu¬ 
guese, Spanish, and Roman Indexes. The volume con¬ 
cludes with two quotations from a profound work of Sir 
Edwin Sandys, Europse Speculum , or a View and Survey 
of the State of Religion in the Western parts of the 
world. 4to. Hagse-Com. 1629. James , first librarian of 
the Bodleian, appears to have treated of the Indexes in his 
usually excellent manner; but no author since having de¬ 
dicated a volume to the subject, the present may be re¬ 
garded as containing a complete and satisfactory statement 
of the editions with their characteristics of a set of books 
studiously preserved (in the case of the earlier expurgatory 
Indexes) from the public eye. 

Class. Journ. for March, 1827. p. 154. 

3 p 



Bible Hebraique en Lettres Latines, with a Grammar and a Dictionary 
in conformity with the new Text, by M. Dusson, Member of the Asiati- 
cal Society of France. 3 vols. in 8vo. 

Rejse in die Gegend zwischen Alexandrien und Paratonium, die Libysche 
Wii'ste, Siwa, Egypten, Palastina, und Syrien, in den Jahren 1820 und 
1821. Von Dr. Joh. Mart. Augustin Scholz, Professor der Theologie auf 
der Universitat zu Bonn. 1 Travels in the region between Alexandria 
and Paraetonium, in the desert of Libya, in Siwa, Egypt,' Palestine, and 
Syria, in the years 1820 and 1821. By Dr. John Mart. Augustin Scholz, 
Professor of Theology in the University of Bonn. 

The name of Dr. Scholz has long been well known to 
biblical scholars, although his works have not passed beyond 
the German language: his Biblical Tour and the present 
work, on account of its connexion with theological inquiries, 
rank deservedly among the most important discoveries of 
modern times. We consider it consistent with our plan to 
attract the public notice to his labours, as we shall shortly 
have to devote our attention to a New Testament by this 
author, in which a new system of recensions and various 
readings, unknown to Griesbach and Matthaei, are brought 
to light by means of his unwearied researches in various 
countries of Europe and the East. 

Brit. Crit, Quart. Theol. Rev. &c. for March, p. 362. 

The expectations formed by the Assyrians, that a great Deliverer would 
appear, about the time of our Lord’s Advent, demonstrated. By Mr. No¬ 
lan. Lond. 1826. 

Letters on Clerical Manner^ and Habits, by the Rev. Samuel Miller, D, D. 
Princeton, 1827. 

Six Sermons on the Nature, Occasions, Signs, Evils, and Remedy of Intem¬ 
perance. By Dr. Beecher. Boston, 


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